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Solutions containing sodium ions should be used with great care, if at all, in patients with congestive heart failure, severe renal insufficiency and in clinical states in which there exists edema with sodium retention.
In patients with diminished renal function, administration of solutions containing sodium ions may result in sodium retention. Solutions containing acetate ions should be used with great care in patients with metabolic or respiratory alkalosis. Acetate should be administered with great care in those conditions in which there is an increased level or an impaired utilization of this ion, such as severe hepatic insufficiency.
The intravenous administration of this solution (after appropriate dilution) can cause fluid and/or solute overloading resulting in dilution of other serum electrolyte concentrations, overhydration, congested states or pulmonary edema. Excessive administration of potassium free solutions may result in significant hypokalemia.
WARNING: This product contains aluminum that may be toxic. Aluminum may reach toxic levels with prolonged parenteral administration if kidney function is impaired. Premature neonates are particularly at risk because their kidneys are immature, and they require large amounts of calcium and phosphate solutions, which contain aluminum.
Research indicates that patients with impaired kidney function, including premature neonates, who receive parenteral levels of aluminum at greater than 4 to 5 mcg/kg/day accumulate aluminum at levels associated with central nervous system and bone toxicity. Tissue loading may occur at even lower rates of administration.
Do not administer unless solution is clear and seal is intact. Discard unused portion. Sodium replacement therapy should be guided primarily by the serum sodium level.
Caution should be exercised in administering sodium-containing solutions to patients with severe renal function impairment, cirrhosis, cardiac failure, or other edematous or sodium-retaining states, as well as in patients with oliguria or anuria. Caution must be exercised in the administration of parenteral fluids, especially those containing sodium ions, to patients receiving corticosteroids or corticotropin.
Solutions containing acetate ions should be used with caution as excess administration may result in metabolic alkalosis.
Pregnancy Category C.
Animal reproduction studies have not been conducted with sodium acetate. It is also not known whether sodium acetate (sodium acetate (sodium acetate (sodium acetate injection) injection) injection) can cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman or can affect reproduction capacity. Sodium acetate (sodium acetate (sodium acetate (sodium acetate injection) injection) injection) should be given to a pregnant woman only if clearly needed.
Safety and effectiveness have been established in the age groups infant to adolescent.
An evaluation of current literature revealed no clinical experience identifying differences in response between elderly and younger patients. In general, dose selection for an elderly patient should be cautious, usually starting at the low end of the dosing range, reflecting the greater frequency of decreased hepatic, renal, or cardiac function, and of concomitant disease or other drug therapy. Sodium ions are known to be substantially excreted by the kidney, and the risk of toxic reactions may be greater in patients with impaired renal function. Because elderly patients are more likely to have decreased renal function, care should be taken in dose selection, and it may be useful to monitor renal function.
Last reviewed on RxList: 5/19/2009
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.
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