May 26, 2017
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Sovaldi

"BOSTON ” Direct-acting antiviral agents do not appear to increase risk for liver cancer in patients with hepatitis C infection and cirrhosis, but the drugs could make existing but previously undetected cancers worse and harder to treat, acco"...

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Sovaldi

Warnings
Precautions

WARNINGS

Included as part of the "PRECAUTIONS" Section

PRECAUTIONS

Risk Of Hepatitis B Virus Reactivation In Patients Coinfected With HCV And HBV

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) reactivation has been reported in HCV/HBV coinfected patients who were undergoing or had completed treatment with HCV direct acting antivirals, and who were not receiving HBV antiviral therapy. Some cases have resulted in fulminant hepatitis, hepatic failure, and death. Cases have been reported in patients who are HBsAg positive and also in patients with serologic evidence of resolved HBV infection (i.e., HBsAg negative and anti-HBc positive). HBV reactivation has also been reported in patients receiving certain immunosuppressant or chemotherapeutic agents; the risk of HBV reactivation associated with treatment with HCV direct-acting antivirals may be increased in these patients.

HBV reactivation is characterized as an abrupt increase in HBV replication manifesting as a rapid increase in serum HBV DNA level. In patients with resolved HBV infection, reappearance of HBsAg can occur. Reactivation of HBV replication may be accompanied by hepatitis, i.e., increases in aminotransferase levels and, in severe cases, increases in bilirubin levels, liver failure, and death can occur.

Test all patients for evidence of current or prior HBV infection by measuring HBsAg and anti-HBc before initiating HCV treatment with SOVALDI. In patients with serologic evidence of HBV infection, monitor for clinical and laboratory signs of hepatitis flare or HBV reactivation during HCV treatment with SOVALDI and during post-treatment follow-up. Initiate appropriate patient management for HBV infection as clinically indicated.

Serious Symptomatic Bradycardia When Coadministered With Amiodarone

Postmarketing cases of symptomatic bradycardia and cases requiring pacemaker intervention have been reported when amiodarone is coadministered with a sofosbuvircontaining regimen. A fatal cardiac arrest was reported in a patient taking amiodarone who was coadministered a sofosbuvir-containing regimen (HARVONI [ledipasvir/sofosbuvir]). Bradycardia has generally occurred within hours to days, but cases have been observed up to 2 weeks after initiating HCV treatment. Patients also taking beta blockers, or those with underlying cardiac comorbidities and/or advanced liver disease may be at increased risk for symptomatic bradycardia with coadministration of amiodarone. Bradycardia generally resolved after discontinuation of HCV treatment. The mechanism for this effect is unknown.

Coadministration of amiodarone with SOVALDI is not recommended. For patients taking amiodarone who have no other alternative, viable treatment options and who will be coadministered SOVALDI:

  • Counsel patients about the risk of serious symptomatic bradycardia
  • Cardiac monitoring in an in-patient setting for the first 48 hours of coadministration is recommended, after which outpatient or self-monitoring of the heart rate should occur on a daily basis through at least the first 2 weeks of treatment.

Patients who are taking SOVALDI who need to start amiodarone therapy due to no other alternative, viable treatment options should undergo similar cardiac monitoring as outlined above.

Due to amiodarone’s long half-life, patients discontinuing amiodarone just prior to starting SOVALDI should also undergo similar cardiac monitoring as outlined above.

Patients who develop signs or symptoms of bradycardia should seek medical evaluation immediately. Symptoms may include near-fainting or fainting, dizziness or lightheadedness, malaise, weakness, excessive tiredness, shortness of breath, chest pains, confusion or memory problems [see ADVERSE REACTIONS, DRUG INTERACTIONS].

Risk Of Reduced Therapeutic Effect Due To Use With P-Gp Inducers

Drugs that are P-gp inducers in the intestine (e.g., rifampin, St. John’s wort) may significantly decrease sofosbuvir plasma concentrations and may lead to a reduced therapeutic effect of SOVALDI. The use of rifampin and St. John’s wort with SOVALDI is not recommended [see DRUG INTERACTIONS].

Risks Associated With Combination Treatment

Because SOVALDI is used in combination with other antiviral drugs for treatment of HCV infection, consult the prescribing information for these drugs used in combination with SOVALDI. Warnings and Precautions related to these drugs also apply to their use in SOVALDI combination treatment.

Patient Counseling Information

Advise the patient to read the FDA-approved patient labeling (PATIENT INFORMATION).

Risk Of Hepatitis B Virus Reactivation In Patients Coinfected With HCV And HBV

Inform patients that HBV reactivation can occur in patients coinfected with HBV during or after treatment of HCV infection. Advise patients to tell their healthcare provider if they have a history of HBV infection [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].

Serious Symptomatic Bradycardia When Coadministered With Amiodarone

Advise patients to seek medical evaluation immediately for symptoms of bradycardia such as near-fainting or fainting, dizziness or lightheadedness, malaise, weakness, excessive tiredness, shortness of breath, chest pain, confusion or memory problems[see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS, ADVERSE REACTIONS, and DRUG INTERACTIONS].

Pregnancy

Advise patients to avoid pregnancy during combination treatment with SOVALDI and ribavirin or SOVALDI and peginterferon and ribavirin. Inform patients to notify their health care provider immediately in the event of a pregnancy [see Use In Specific Populations].

Drug Interactions

Advise patients that SOVALDI may interact with some drugs; therefore, patients should be advised to report the use of any prescription, non-prescription medication or herbal products to their healthcare provider [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS and DRUG INTERACTIONS].

Hepatitis C Virus Transmission

Inform patients that the effect of treatment of hepatitis C infection on transmission is not known, and that appropriate precautions to prevent transmission of the hepatitis C virus during treatment or in the event of treatment failure should be taken.

Important Information On Coadministration With Ribavirin Or Peginterferon And Ribavirin

Advise patients that the recommended regimen for patients with genotype 1 or 4 HCV infection is SOVALDI administered in combination with peginterferon alfa and ribavirin and the recommended regimen for patients with genotype 2 or 3 HCV infection is SOVALDI administered in combination with ribavirin. If peginterferon and/or ribavirin are permanently discontinued, SOVALDI should also be discontinued.

Nonclinical Toxicology

Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment Of Fertility

Carcinogenesis And Mutagenesis

Use with Ribavirin and/or Peginterferon alfa

Refer to prescribing information for ribavirin and/or peginterferon alfa for information on carcinogenesis and mutagenesis.

Sofosbuvir was not genotoxic in a battery of in vitro or in vivo assays, including bacterial mutagenicity, chromosome aberration using human peripheral blood lymphocytes and in vivo mouse micronucleus assays.

Two-year carcinogenicity studies in mice and rats were conducted with sofosbuvir. Mice were administered doses of up to 200 mg/kg/day in males and 600 mg/kg/day in females, while rats were administered doses of up to 750 mg/kg/day in males and females. No increase in the incidence of drug-related neoplasms were observed at the highest doses tested in mice and rats, resulting in AUC exposure to the predominant circulating metabolite GS-331007 of approximately 7 and 30 times (in mice) and 13 and 17 times (in rats), in males and females respectively, the exposure in humans at the recommended clinical dose.

Impairment Of Fertility

Use with Ribavirin and/or Peginterferon alfa

Refer to prescribing information for ribavirin and/or peginterferon alfa for information on impairment of fertility.

Sofosbuvir had no effects on embryo-fetal viability or on fertility when evaluated in rats. At the highest dose tested, AUC exposure to the predominant circulating metabolite GS-331007 was approximately 8 times the exposure in humans at the recommended clinical dose.

Use In Specific Populations

Pregnancy

Risk Summary

If SOVALDI is administered with ribavirin or peginterferon alfa and ribavirin, the combination regimen is contraindicated in pregnant women and in men whose female partners are pregnant. Refer to the ribavirin and/or peginterferon alfa prescribing information for more information on ribavirin-and peginterferon alfa-associated risks of use during pregnancy.

No adequate human data are available to establish whether or not SOVALDI poses a risk to pregnancy outcomes. In animal reproduction studies, no evidence of adverse developmental outcomes was observed with sofosbuvir at exposures greater than those in humans at the recommended human dose (RHD) [see Data]. During organogenesis in the rat and rabbit, systemic exposures (AUC) to the predominant circulating metabolite of sofosbuvir (GS-331007) were ≥5 (rats) and 12 (rabbits) times the exposure in humans at the RHD. In the rat pre/postnatal development study, maternal systemic exposure (AUC) to GS-331007 was ≥6 times the exposure in humans at the RHD.

The background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage for the indicated population is unknown. In the U.S. general population, the estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage in clinically recognized pregnancies is 2–4% and 15–20%, respectively.

Data

Animal Data

Sofosbuvir was administered orally to pregnant rats (up to 500 mg/kg/day) and rabbits (up to 300 mg/kg/day) on gestation days 6 to 18 and 6 to 19, respectively, and also to rats (oral doses up to 500 mg/kg/day) on gestation day 6 to lactation/post-partum day 20. No significant effects on embryo-fetal (rats and rabbits) or pre/postnatal (rats) development were observed at the highest doses tested. Systemic exposures (AUC) to the predominant circulating metabolite of sofosbuvir (GS-331007) were ≥5 (rats) and 12 (rabbits) times the exposure in humans at the RHD, with exposures increasing during gestation from approximately 5 to 10 (rats) and 12 to 28 (rabbits) times the exposure in humans at the RHD.

Lactation

Risk Summary

It is not known whether sofosbuvir or its metabolites are present in human breast milk, affect human milk production or have effects on the breastfed infant. The predominant circulating metabolite of sofosbuvir (GS-331007) was the primary component observed in the milk of lactating rats, without effect on nursing pups [see Data].

The developmental and health benefits of breastfeeding should be considered along with the mother’s clinical need for SOVALDI and any potential adverse effects on the breastfed child from SOVALDI or from the underlying maternal condition.

If SOVALDI is administered with ribavirin, the nursing mother’s information for ribavirin also applies to this combination regimen. Refer to the ribavirin prescribing information for more information on use during lactation.

Data

Animal Data

No effects of sofosbuvir on growth and postnatal development were observed in nursing pups at the highest dose tested in rats. Maternal systemic exposure (AUC) to the predominant circulating metabolite of sofosbuvir (GS-331007) was approximately 12 times the exposure in humans at the RHD, with exposure of approximately 2% that of maternal exposure observed in nursing pups on lactation day 10. In a lactation study, sofosbuvir metabolites (primarily GS-331007) were excreted into the milk of lactating rats following administration of a single oral dose of sofosbuvir (20 mg/kg) on lactation day 2, with milk concentrations of approximately 10% that of maternal plasma concentrations observed 1 hour post-dose.

Females And Males Of Reproductive Potential

If SOVALDI is administered with ribavirin or peginterferon and ribavirin, the information for ribavirin and peginterferon with regard to pregnancy testing, contraception, and infertility also applies to these combination regimens. Refer to ribavirin and/or peginterferon prescribing information for additional information.

Pediatric Use

The safety, pharmacokinetics, and efficacy of SOVALDI in pediatric patients 12 years of age and older or weighing at least 35 kg with genotype 2 and 3 infection have been established. SOVALDI was evaluated in an open-label clinical trial (Study 1112), which included 50 subjects (13 genotype 2; 37 genotype 3) 12 years of age and older. The safety, pharmacokinetics, and efficacy were comparable to that observed in adults [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION, ADVERSE REACTIONS, CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY, and Clinical Studies].

The safety and efficacy of SOVALDI in pediatric patients 12 years of age and older or weighing at least 35 kg with compensated cirrhosis is supported by comparable sofosbuvir and GS-331007 exposures between: 1) adults and adolescents without cirrhosis and 2) adults without cirrhosis and adults with compensated cirrhosis. Thus, similar efficacy would be expected for adolescent patients with compensated cirrhosis as adults with compensated cirrhosis.

The safety and efficacy of SOVALDI have not been established in pediatric patients less than 12 years of age and weighing less than 35 kg with HCV genotype 2 or 3. The safety and efficacy of SOVALDI have not been established in pediatric patients with HCV genotype 1 or 4.

Geriatric Use

SOVALDI was administered to 90 subjects aged 65 and over. The response rates observed for subjects over 65 years of age were similar to that of younger subjects across treatment groups. No dosage adjustment of SOVALDI is warranted in geriatric patients [see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY].

Renal Impairment

No dosage adjustment of SOVALDI is required for patients with mild or moderate renal impairment. The safety and efficacy of SOVALDI have not been established in patients with severe renal impairment (eGFR less than 30 mL/min/1.73m2) or ESRD requiring hemodialysis. No dosage recommendation can be given for patients with severe renal impairment or ESRD [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION and CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY]. Refer also to ribavirin and peginterferon alfa prescribing information for patients with CrCl less than 50 mL/min.

Hepatic Impairment

No dosage adjustment of SOVALDI is required for patients with mild, moderate or severe hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh Class A, B or C) [see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY]. Safety and efficacy of SOVALDI have not been established in patients with decompensated cirrhosis. See peginterferon alfa prescribing information for contraindication in hepatic decompensation.

Patients With Hepatocellular Carcinoma Awaiting Liver Transplantation

SOVALDI was studied in HCV-infected adult subjects with hepatocellular carcinoma prior to undergoing liver transplantation in an open-label clinical trial evaluating the safety and efficacy of SOVALDI and ribavirin administered pre-transplant to prevent post-transplant HCV reinfection. The primary endpoint of the trial was post-transplant virologic response (pTVR) defined as HCV RNA less than lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) at 12 weeks post-transplant. HCV-infected subjects, regardless of genotype, with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) meeting the MILAN criteria (defined as the presence of a tumor 5 cm or less in diameter in patients with single hepatocellular carcinomas and no more than three tumor nodules, each 3 cm or less in diameter in patients with multiple tumors and no extrahepatic manifestations of the cancer or evidence of vascular invasion of tumor) received 400 mg SOVALDI and weight-based 1000-1200 mg ribavirin daily for 24-48 weeks or until the time of liver transplantation, whichever occurred first. An interim analysis was conducted on 61 subjects who received SOVALDI and ribavirin; 45 subjects had HCV genotype 1; 44 subjects had a baseline CPT score less than 7 and all subjects had a baseline unadjusted MELD score up to 14. Of these 61 subjects, 41 subjects underwent liver transplantation following up to 48 weeks of treatment with SOVALDI and ribavirin; 37 had HCV RNA less than LLOQ at the time of transplantation. Of the 37 subjects, the post-transplant virologic response (pTVR) rate is 64% (23/36) in the 36 evaluable subjects who have reached the 12 week post-transplant time point. The safety profile of SOVALDI and ribavirin in HCV-infected subjects prior to liver transplantation was comparable to that observed in subjects treated with SOVALDI and ribavirin in Phase 3 clinical trials.

Post-Liver Transplant Patients

The safety and efficacy of SOVALDI have not been established in post-liver transplant patients.

Patients With Genotype 5 Or 6 HCV Infection

Available data on subjects with genotype 5 or 6 HCV infection are insufficient for dosing recommendations. This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

Last reviewed on RxList: 4/20/2017

Warnings
Precautions

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You are encouraged to report negative side effects of prescription drugs to the FDA. Visit the FDA MedWatch website or call 1-800-FDA-1088.


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