"The cystic fibrosis (CF) drug Orkambi (Vertex Pharmaceuticals) has received a green light from the European Medicines Agency (EMA) Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use (CHMP).
Orkambi is a fixed-dose oral combination "...
BEFORE THERAPY WITH SPECTRACEF® (CEFDITOREN PIVOXIL) IS INSTITUTED, CAREFUL INQUIRY SHOULD BE MADE TO DETERMINE WHETHER THE PATIENT HAS HAD PREVIOUS HYPERSENSITIVITY REACTIONS TO CEFDITOREN PIVOXIL, OTHER CEPHALOSPORINS, PENICILLINS, OR OTHER DRUGS. IF CEFDITOREN PIVOXIL IS TO BE GIVEN TO PENICILLINSENSITIVE PATIENTS, CAUTION SHOULD BE EXERCISED BECAUSE CROSS-HYPERSENSITIVITY AMONG β-LACTAM ANTIBIOTICS HAS BEEN CLEARLY DOCUMENTED AND MAY OCCUR IN UP TO 10% OF PATIENTS WITH A HISTORY OF PENICILLIN ALLERGY. IF AN ALLERGIC REACTION, INCLUDING ANAPHYLAXIS, TO CEFDITOREN PIVOXIL OCCURS, THE DRUG SHOULD BE DISCONTINUED. SERIOUS ACUTE HYPERSENSITIVITY REACTIONS MAY REQUIRE TREATMENT WITH EPINEPHRINE AND OTHER EMERGENCY MEASURES, INCLUDING OXYGEN, INTRAVENOUS FLUIDS, INTRAVENOUS ANTIHISTAMINES, CORTICOSTEROIDS, PRESSOR AMINES, AND AIRWAY MANAGEMENT, AS CLINICALLY INDICATED.
Pseudomembranous colitis has been reported with nearly all antibacterial agents, including cefditoren pivoxil, and may range in severity from mild to life-threatening. Therefore, it is important to consider this diagnosis in patients who present with diarrhea subsequent to the administration of antibacterial agents.
Treatment with antibacterial agents alters normal flora of the colon and may permit overgrowth of clostridia. Studies indicate that a toxin produced by Clostridium difficile (C. difficile) is a primary cause of antibiotic-associated colitis. After the diagnosis of pseudomembranous colitis has been established, appropriate therapeutic measures should be initiated. Mild cases of pseudomembranous colitis usually respond to drug discontinuation alone. In moderate to severe cases, consideration should be given to management with fluids and electrolytes, protein supplementation, and treatment with an antibacterial drug clinically effective against C. difficile colitis.
Prescribing SPECTRACEF® in the absence of a proven or strongly suspected bacterial infection or a prophylactic indication is unlikely to provide benefit to the patient and increases the risk of the development of drug-resistant bacteria.
SPECTRACEF® is not recommended when prolonged antibiotic treatment is necessary, since other pivalate-containing compounds have caused clinical manifestations of carnitine deficiency when used over a period of months. No clinical effects of carnitine decrease have been associated with short-term treatment. The effects on carnitine concentrations of repeat short-term courses of SPECTRACEF® are not known.
In community-acquired pneumonia patients (N=192, mean age 50.3 ± 17.2 years) given a 200 mg BID regimen for 14 days, the mean decrease in serum concentrations of total carnitine while on therapy was 13.8 ± 10.8 nmole/mL, representing a 30% decrease in serum carnitine concentrations. In community-acquired pneumonia patients (N=192, mean age 51.3 ± 17.8 years) given a 400 mg BID regimen for 14 days, the mean decrease in serum concentrations of total carnitine while on therapy was 21.5 ± 13.1 nmole/mL, representing a 46% decrease in serum carnitine concentrations. Plasma concentrations of carnitine returned to the normal control range within 7 days after discontinuation of cefditoren pivoxil. Comparable decreases in carnitine were observed in healthy volunteers (mean age 33.6 ± 7.4 years) following a 200 mg or 400 mg BID regimen. (See CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY.) Community-acquired pneumonia clinical trials demonstrated no adverse events attributable to decreases in serum carnitine concentrations.
However, some sub-populations (e.g., patients with renal impairment, patients with decreased muscle mass) may be at increased risk for reductions in serum carnitine concentrations during cefditoren pivoxil therapy. Furthermore, the appropriate dose in patients with end-stage renal disease has not been determined. (See DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION, Patients with Renal Insufficiency).
As with other antibiotics, prolonged treatment may result in the possible emergence and overgrowth of resistant organisms. Careful observation of the patient is essential. If superinfection occurs during therapy, appropriate alternative therapy should be administered. Cephalosporins may be associated with a fall in prothrombin activity. Those at risk include patients with renal or hepatic impairment, or poor nutritional state, as well as patients receiving a protracted course of antimicrobial therapy, and patients previously stabilized on anticoagulant therapy. Prothrombin time should be monitored in patients at risk and exogenous vitamin K administered as indicated. In clinical trials, there was no difference between cefditoren and comparator cephalosporins in the incidence of increased prothrombin time.
Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility
No long-term animal carcinogenicity studies have been conducted with cefditoren pivoxil. Cefditoren pivoxil was not mutagenic in the Ames bacterial reverse mutation assay, or in the mouse lymphoma mutation assay at the hypoxanthineguanine phosphoribosyltransferase locus. In Chinese hamster lung cells, chromosomal aberrations were produced by cefditoren pivoxil, but not by cefditoren. Subsequent studies showed that the chromosome aberrations were due to the release of formaldehyde from the pivoxil ester moiety in the in vitro assay system. Neither cefditoren nor cefditoren pivoxil produced chromosomal aberrations when tested in an in vitro human peripheral blood lymphocyte assay, or in the in vivo mouse micronucleus assay. Cefditoren pivoxil did not induce unscheduled DNA syntheses when tested. In rats, fertility and reproduction were not affected by cefditoren pivoxil at oral doses up to 1000 mg/kg/day, approximately 24 times a human dose of 200 mg BID based on mg/m²/day.
Pregnancy Category B
Cefditoren pivoxil was not teratogenic up to the highest doses tested in rats and rabbits. In rats, this dose was 1000 mg/kg/day, which is approximately 24 times a human dose of 200 mg BID based on mg/m²/day. In rabbits, the highest dose tested was 90 mg/kg/day, which is approximately four times a human dose of 200 mg BID based on mg/m²/day. This dose produced severe maternal toxicity and resulted in fetal toxicity and abortions.
In a postnatal development study in rats, cefditoren pivoxil produced no adverse effects on postnatal survival, physical and behavioral development, learning abilities, and reproductive capability at sexual maturity when tested at doses of up to 750 mg/kg/day, the highest dose tested. This is approximately 18 times a human dose of 200 mg BID based on mg/m²/day. There are, however, no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women. Because animal reproductive studies are not always predictive of human response, this drug should be used during pregnancy only if clearly needed.
Labor and Delivery
Cefditoren pivoxil has not been studied for use during labor and delivery.
Cefditoren was detected in the breast milk of lactating rats. Because many drugs are excreted in human breast milk, caution should be exercised when cefditoren pivoxil is administered to nursing women.
Use of cefditoren pivoxil is not recommended for pediatric patients less than 12 years of age. The safety and efficacy of cefditoren pivoxil tablets in this population, including any effects of altered carnitine concentration, have not been established. (See PRECAUTIONS, General.)
Of the 2675 patients in clinical studies who received cefditoren pivoxil 200 mg BID, 308 (12%) were > 65 years of age. Of the 2159 patients in clinical studies who received cefditoren pivoxil 400 mg BID, 307 (14%) were > 65 years of age. No clinically significant differences in effectiveness or safety were observed between older and younger patients. No dose adjustments are necessary in geriatric patients with normal (for their age) renal function. This drug is known to be substantially excreted by the kidney, and the risk of toxic reactions to this drug may be greater in patients with impaired renal function. Because elderly patients are more likely to have decreased renal function, care should be taken in dose selection, and it may be useful to monitor renal function. (See DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION.)This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.
Last reviewed on RxList: 8/17/2012
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