"COPD is a serious lung disease that makes breathing difficult and worsens over time. Symptoms can include wheezing, cough, chest tightness, and shortness of breath. Cigarette smoking is the leading cause of COPD. According to the National Heart, "...
Not for Acute Use
SPIRIVA HandiHaler is intended as a once-daily maintenance treatment for COPD and is not indicated for the initial treatment of acute episodes of bronchospasm (i.e., rescue therapy).
Immediate Hypersensitivity Reactions
Immediate hypersensitivity reactions, including angioedema (including swelling of the lips, tongue, or throat), itching, or rash may occur after administration of SPIRIVA HandiHaler. If such a reaction occurs, therapy with SPIRIVA HandiHaler should be stopped at once and alternative treatments should be considered. Given the similar structural formula of atropine to tiotropium, patients with a history of hypersensitivity reactions to atropine should be closely monitored for similar hypersensitivity reactions to SPIRIVA HandiHaler. In addition, SPIRIVA HandiHaler should be used with caution in patients with severe hypersensitivity to milk proteins.
Inhaled medicines, including SPIRIVA HandiHaler, may cause paradoxical bronchospasm. If this occurs, treatment with SPIRIVA HandiHaler should be stopped and other treatments considered.
Worsening of Narrow-Angle Glaucoma
SPIRIVA HandiHaler should be used with caution in patients with narrow-angle glaucoma. Prescribers and patients should be alert for signs and symptoms of acute narrow-angle glaucoma (e.g., eye pain or discomfort, blurred vision, visual halos or colored images in association with red eyes from conjunctival congestion and corneal edema). Instruct patients to consult a physician immediately should any of these signs or symptoms develop.
Worsening of Urinary Retention
SPIRIVA HandiHaler should be used with caution in patients with urinary retention. Prescribers and patients should be alert for signs and symptoms of prostatic hyperplasia or bladder-neck obstruction (e.g., difficulty passing urine, painful urination). Instruct patients to consult a physician immediately should any of these signs or symptoms develop.
As a predominantly renally excreted drug, patients with moderate to severe renal impairment (creatinine clearance of ≤ 50 mL/min) treated with SPIRIVA HandiHaler should be monitored closely for anticholinergic side effects [see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY].
Patient Counseling Information
See FDA-approved Patient Labeling
Instructions for Administering SPIRIVA HandiHaler
It is important for patients to understand how to correctly administer SPIRIVA capsules using the HandiHaler device [see PATIENT INFORMATION]. Patients should be instructed that SPIRIVA capsules should only be administered via the HandiHaler device and the HandiHaler device should not be used for administering other medications. The contents of SPIRIVA capsules are for oral inhalation only and must not be swallowed.
SPIRIVA capsules should always be stored in sealed blisters. Only one SPIRIVA capsule should be removed immediately before use or its effectiveness may be reduced. Additional SPIRIVA capsules that are exposed to air (i.e., not intended for immediate use) should be discarded.
Patients should be informed that SPIRIVA HandiHaler can produce paradoxical bronchospasm. If paradoxical bronchospasm occurs, patients should discontinue SPIRIVA HandiHaler.
Difficulty passing urine and dysuria may be symptoms of new or worsening prostatic hyperplasia or bladder outlet obstruction. Patients should be instructed to consult a physician immediately should any of these signs or symptoms develop.
Eye pain or discomfort, blurred vision, visual halos or colored images in association with red eyes from conjunctival congestion and corneal edema may be signs of acute narrow-angle glaucoma. Patients should be told to consult a physician immediately should any of these signs and symptoms develop. Miotic eye drops alone are not considered to be effective treatment.
Patients should be told that care must be taken not to allow the powder to enter into the eyes as this may cause blurring of vision and pupil dilation.
Patients should understand that SPIRIVA HandiHaler is a once-daily maintenance bronchodilator and should not be used for immediate relief of breathing problems (i.e., as a rescue medication).
Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility
No evidence of tumorigenicity was observed in a 104-week inhalation study in rats at tiotropium doses up to 0.059 mg/kg/day, in an 83-week inhalation study in female mice at doses up to 0.145 mg/kg/day, and in a 101-week inhalation study in male mice at doses up to 0.002 mg/kg/day. These doses correspond to approximately 25, 35, and 0.5 times the recommended human daily inhalation dose (RHDID) on a mg/m² basis, respectively. These dose multiples may be over-estimated due to difficulties in measuring deposited doses in animal inhalation studies.
Tiotropium bromide demonstrated no evidence of mutagenicity or clastogenicity in the following assays: the bacterial gene mutation assay, the V79 Chinese hamster cell mutagenesis assay, the chromosomal aberration assays in human lymphocytes in vitro and mouse micronucleus formation in vivo, and the unscheduled DNA synthesis in primary rat hepatocytes in vitro assay.
In rats, decreases in the number of corpora lutea and the percentage of implants were noted at inhalation tiotropium doses of 0.078 mg/kg/day or greater (approximately 35 times the RHDID on a mg/m² basis). No such effects were observed at 0.009 mg/kg/day (approximately 4 times than the RHDID on a mg/m² basis). The fertility index, however, was not affected at inhalation doses up to 1.689 mg/kg/day (approximately 760 times the RHDID on a mg/m² basis). These dose multiples may be over-estimated due to difficulties in measuring deposited doses in animal inhalation studies.
Use In Specific Populations
Teratogenic Effects, Pregnancy Category C
No evidence of structural alterations was observed in rats and rabbits at inhalation tiotropium doses of up to approximately 660 and 6 times the recommended human daily inhalation dose (RHDID) on a mg/m² basis, respectively. However, in rats, tiotropium caused fetal resorption, litter loss, decreases in the number of live pups at birth and the mean pup weights, and a delay in pup sexual maturation at inhalation tiotropium doses of approximately 35 times the RHDID on a mg/m² basis. In rabbits, tiotropium caused an increase in post-implantation loss at an inhalation dose of approximately 360 times the RHDID on a mg/m² basis. Such effects were not observed at inhalation doses of approximately 4 and 80 times the RHDID on a mg/m² basis, respectively. These dose multiples may be over-estimated due to difficulties in measuring deposited doses in animal inhalation studies.
Labor and Delivery
The safety and effectiveness of SPIRIVA HandiHaler has not been studied during labor and delivery.
Clinical data from nursing women exposed to tiotropium are not available. Based on lactating rodent studies, tiotropium is excreted into breast milk. It is not known whether tiotropium is excreted in human milk, but because many drugs are excreted in human milk and given these findings in rats, caution should be exercised if SPIRIVA HandiHaler is administered to a nursing woman.
SPIRIVA HandiHaler is approved for use in the maintenance treatment of bronchospasm associated with COPD and for the reduction of COPD exacerbations. COPD does not normally occur in children. The safety and effectiveness of SPIRIVA HandiHaler in pediatric patients have not been established.
Of the total number of patients who received SPIRIVA HandiHaler in the 1-year clinical trials, 426 were < 65 years, 375 were 65 to 74 years, and 105 were ≥ 75 years of age. Within each age subgroup, there were no differences between the proportion of patients with adverse events in the SPIRIVA HandiHaler and the comparator groups for most events. Dry mouth increased with age in the SPIRIVA HandiHaler group (differences from placebo were 9.0%, 17.1%, and 16.2% in the aforementioned age subgroups). A higher frequency of constipation and urinary tract infections with increasing age was observed in the SPIRIVA HandiHaler group in the placebo-controlled studies. The differences from placebo for constipation were 0%, 1.8%, and 7.8% for each of the age groups. The differences from placebo for urinary tract infections were –0.6%, 4.6%, and 4.5%. No overall differences in effectiveness were observed among these groups. Based on available data, no adjustment of SPIRIVA HandiHaler dosage in geriatric patients is warranted [see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY].
Patients with moderate to severe renal impairment (creatinine clearance of ≤ 50 mL/min) treated with SPIRIVA HandiHaler should be monitored closely for anticholinergic side effects [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION and CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY].
The effects of hepatic impairment on the pharmacokinetics of tiotropium were not studied.
Last reviewed on RxList: 9/7/2011
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.
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