"Feb. 15, 2013 -- The CDC is investigating an outbreak of salmonella linked to raw Foster Farms chicken that has sickened 124 people in 12 states.
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SPORANOX® (itraconazole) Capsules and SPORANOX® (itraconazole capsules) Oral Solution should not be used interchangeably. This is because drug exposure is greater with the Oral Solution than with the Capsules when the same dose of drug is given. In addition, the topical effects of mucosal exposure may be different between the two formulations. Only the Oral Solution has been demonstrated effective for oral and/or esophageal candidiasis.
SPORANOX® (itraconazole capsules) has been associated with rare cases of serious hepatotoxicity, including liver failure and death. Some of these cases had neither pre-existing liver disease nor a serious underlying medical condition, and some of these cases developed within the first week of treatment. If clinical signs or symptoms develop that are consistent with liver disease, treatment should be discontinued and liver function testing performed. Continued SPORANOX® (itraconazole capsules) use or reinstitution of treatment with SPORANOX® (itraconazole capsules) is strongly discouraged unless there is a serious or life-threatening situation where the expected benefit exceeds the risk. (See PATIENT INFORMATION and ADVERSE REACTIONS.)
Life-threatening cardiac dysrhythmias and/or sudden death have occurred in patients using cisapride, pimozide, levacetylmethadol (levomethadyl), or quinidine concomitantly with SPORANOX® (itraconazole capsules) and/or other CYP3A4 inhibitors. Concomitant administration of these drugs with SPORANOX® is contraindicated. (See BOX WARNING, CONTRAINDICATIONS, and PRECAUTIONS: DRUG INTERACTIONS.)
SPORANOX® (itraconazole capsules) Capsules should not be administered for the treatment of onychomycosis in patients with evidence of ventricular dysfunction such as congestive heart failure (CHF) or a history of CHF. SPORANOX® (itraconazole capsules) Capsules should not be used for other indications in patients with evidence of ventricular dysfunction unless the benefit clearly outweighs the risk.
For patients with risk factors for congestive heart failure, physicians should carefully review the risks and benefits of SPORANOX® (itraconazole capsules) therapy. These risk factors include cardiac disease such as ischemic and valvular disease; significant pulmonary disease such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; and renal failure and other edematous disorders. Such patients should be informed of the signs and symptoms of CHF, should be treated with caution, and should be monitored for signs and symptoms of CHF during treatment. If signs or symptoms of CHF appear during administration of SPORANOX® Capsules, discontinue administration.
Itraconazole has been shown to have a negative inotropic effect. When itraconazole was administered intravenously to anesthetized dogs, a dose-related negative inotropic effect was documented. In a healthy volunteer study of SPORANOX® (itraconazole capsules) Injection (intravenous infusion), transient, asymptomatic decreases in left ventricular ejection fraction were observed using gated SPECT imaging; these resolved before the next infusion, 12 hours later.
SPORANOX® (itraconazole capsules) has been associated with reports of congestive heart failure. In post-marketing experience, heart failure was more frequently reported in patients receiving a total daily dose of 400 mg although there were also cases reported among those receiving lower total daily doses.
Calcium channel blockers can have negative inotropic effects which may be additive to those of itraconazole. In addition, itraconazole can inhibit the metabolism of calcium channel blockers. Therefore, caution should be used when co-administering itraconazole and calcium channel blockers due to an increased risk of CHF. Concomitant administration of SPORANOX® (itraconazole capsules) and nisoldipine is contraindicated.
Cases of CHF, peripheral edema, and pulmonary edema have been reported in the post-marketing period among patients being treated for onychomycosis and/or systemic fungal infections. (See CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY: Special Populations, CONTRAINDICATIONS, PRECAUTIONS: DRUG INTERACTIONS, and ADVERSE REACTIONS: Post-marketing Experience for more information.)
SPORANOX® (itraconazole) Capsules should be administered after a full meal. (See CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY: Pharmacokinetics and Metabolism.)
Under fasted conditions, itraconazole absorption was decreased in the presence of decreased gastric acidity. The absorption of itraconazole may be decreased with the concomitant administration of antacids or gastric acid secretion suppressors. Studies conducted under fasted conditions demonstrated that administration with 8 ounces of a cola beverage resulted in increased absorption of itraconazole in AIDS patients with relative or absolute achlorhydria. This increase relative to the effects of a full meal is unknown. (See CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY: Pharmacokinetics and Metabolism.)
Rare cases of serious hepatotoxicity have been observed with Sporanox® (itraconazole capsules) treatment, including some cases within the first week. In patients with elevated or abnormal liver enzymes or active liver disease, or who have experienced liver toxicity with other drugs, treatment with Sporanox® (itraconazole capsules) is strongly discouraged unless there is a serious or life threatening situation where the expected benefit exceeds the risk. Liver function monitoring should be done in patients with pre-existing hepatic function abnormalities or those who have experienced liver toxicity with other medications and should be considered in all patients receiving Sporanox® (itraconazole capsules) . Treatment should be stopped immediately and liver function testing should be conducted in patients who develop signs and symptoms suggestive of liver dysfunction.
If neuropathy occurs that may be attributable to Sporanox® (itraconazole capsules) capsules, the treatment should be discontinued.
Transient or permanent hearing loss has been reported in patients receiving treatment with itraconazole. Several of these reports included concurrent administration of quinidine which is contraindicated (see BOX WARNING: Drug Interactions; CONTRAINDICATIONS: Drug Interactions and PRECAUTIONS: DRUG INTERACTIONS). The hearing loss usually resolves when treatment is stopped, but can persist in some patients.
Information for Patients
- The topical effects of mucosal exposure may be different between the SPORANOX® (itraconazole capsules) Capsules and Oral Solution. Only the Oral Solution has been demonstrated effective for oral and/or esophageal candidiasis. SPORANOX® (itraconazole capsules) Capsules should not be used interchangeably with SPORANOX® (itraconazole capsules) Oral Solution.
- Instruct patients to take SPORANOX® (itraconazole capsules) Capsules with a full meal.
- Instruct patients about the signs and symptoms of congestive heart failure, and if these signs or symptoms occur during SPORANOX® (itraconazole capsules) administration, they should discontinue SPORANOX® (itraconazole capsules) and contact their healthcare provider immediately.
- Instruct patients to stop SPORANOX® (itraconazole capsules) treatment immediately and contact their healthcare provider if any signs and symptoms suggestive of liver dysfunction develop. Such signs and symptoms may include unusual fatigue, anorexia, nausea and/or vomiting, jaundice, dark urine, or pale stools.
- Instruct patients to contact their physician before taking any concomitant medications with itraconazole to ensure there are no potential drug interactions.
- Instruct patients that hearing loss can occur with the use of itraconazole. The hearing loss usually resolves when treatment is stopped, but can persist in some patients. Advise patients to discontinue therapy and inform their physicians if any hearing loss symptoms occur.
Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, and Impairment of Fertility:
Itraconazole showed no evidence of carcinogenicity potential in mice treated orally for 23 months at dosage levels up to 80 mg/kg/day (approximately 10x the maximum recommended human dose [MRHD]). Male rats treated with 25 mg/kg/day (S.lxMRHD) had a slightly increased incidence of soft tissue sarcoma. These sarcomas may have been a consequence of hypercholesterolemia, which is a response of rats, but not dogs or humans, to chronic itraconazole administration. Female rats treated with 50 mg/kg/day (6.25x MRHD) had an increased incidence of squamous cell carcinoma of the lung (2/50) as compared to the untreated group. Although the occurrence of squamous cell carcinoma in the lung is extremely uncommon in untreated rats, the increase in this study was not statistically significant.
Itraconazole produced no mutagenic effects when assayed in DNA repair test (unscheduled DNA synthesis) in primary rat hepatocytes, in Ames tests with Salmonella typhimurium (6 strains) and Escherichia coli, in the mouse lymphoma gene mutation tests, in a sex-linked recessive lethal mutation (Drosophila melanogaster) test, in chromosome aberration tests in human lymphocytes, in a cell transformation test with C3H/10T1/2 CI8 mouse embryo fibroblasts cells, in a dominant lethal mutation test in male and female mice, and in micronucleus tests in mice and rats.
Itraconazole did not affect the fertility of male or female rats treated orally with dosage levels of up to 40 mg/kg/day (5x MRHD), even though parental toxicity was present at this dosage level. More severe signs of parental toxicity, including death, were present in the next higher dosage level, 160 mg/kg/day (20x MRHD).
Pregnancy: Teratogenic effects. Pregnancy Category C:
Itraconazole was found to cause a dose-related increase in maternal toxicity, embryotoxicity, and teratogenicity in rats at dosage levels of approximately 40-160 mg/kg/day (5-20x MRHD), and in mice at dosage levels of approximately 80 mg/kg/day (l0x MRHD). In rats, the teratogenicity consisted of major skeletal defects; in mice, it consisted of encephaloceles and/or macroglossia.
There are no studies in pregnant women. SPORANOX® (itraconazole capsules) should be used for the treatment of systemic fungal infections in pregnancy only if the benefit outweighs the potential risk.
SPORANOX® (itraconazole capsules) should not be administered for the treatment of onychomycosis to pregnant patients or to women contemplating pregnancy. SPORANOX® (itraconazole capsules) should not be administered to women of childbearing potential for the treatment of onychomycosis unless they are using effective measures to prevent pregnancy and they begin therapy on the second or third day following the onset of menses. Effective contraception should be continued throughout SPORANOX® (itraconazole capsules) therapy and for 2 months following the end of treatment.
During post-marketing experience, cases of congenital abnormalities have been reported. (See ADVERSE REACTIONS, Post-marketing Experience.)
Itraconazole is excreted in human milk; therefore, the expected benefits of SPORANOX® (itraconazole capsules) therapy for the mother should be weighed against the potential risk from exposure of itraconazole to the infant. The U.S. Public Health Service Centers for Disease Control and Prevention advises HIV-infected women not to breast-feed to avoid potential transmission of HIV to uninfected infants.
The efficacy and safety of SPORANOX® (itraconazole capsules) have not been established in pediatric patients. No pharmacokinetic data on SPORANOX® (itraconazole capsules) Capsules are available in children. A small number of patients ages 3 to 16 years have been treated with 100 mg/day of itraconazole capsules for systemic fungal infections, and no serious unexpected adverse events have been reported. SPORANOX® (itraconazole capsules) Oral Solution (5 mg/kg/day) has been administered to pediatric patients (N=26; ages 6 months to 12 years) for 2 weeks and no serious unexpected adverse events were reported.
The long-term effects of itraconazole on bone growth in children are unknown. In three toxicology studies using rats, itraconazole induced bone defects at dosage levels as low as 20 mg/kg/day (2.5 x MRHD). The induced defects included reduced bone plate activity, thinning of the zona compacta of the large bones, and increased bone fragility. At a dosage level of 80 mg/kg/day (l0x MRHD) over 1 year or 160 mg/kg/day (20x MRHD) for 6 months, itraconazole induced small tooth pulp with hypocellular appearance in some rats. No such bone toxicity has been reported in adult patients.
Transient or permanent hearing loss has been reported in elderly patients receiving treatment with itraconazole. Several of these reports included concurrent administration of quinidine which is contraindicated (see BOX WARNING: Drug Interactions, CONTRAINDICATIONS: Drug Interactions and PRECAUTIONS: DRUG INTERACTIONS). Itraconazole should be used with care in elderly patients (see PRECAUTIONS).
Because hypochlorhydria has been reported in HIV-infected individuals, the absorption of itraconazole in these patients may be decreased.
Limited data are available on the use of oral itraconazole in patients with renal impairment. Caution should be exercised when this drug is administered in this patient population. (See CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY: Special Populations and DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION.)
Limited data are available on the use of oral itraconazole in patients with hepatic impairment. Caution should be exercised when this drug is administered in this patient population. (See CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY: Special Populations and DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION.)
Last reviewed on RxList: 8/23/2010
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.
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