"June 8, 2010 (Chicago) -- Two newer drugs, Sprycel and Tasigna, beat out the groundbreaking cancer drug Gleevec in treating people with newly diagnosed chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), researchers report.
In separate studies, both newer "...
Treatment with SPRYCEL is associated with severe (NCI CTC Grade 3 or 4) thrombocytopenia, neutropenia, and anemia, which occur earlier and more frequently in patients with advanced phase CML or Ph+ ALL than in patients with chronic phase CML.
In patients with chronic phase CML, perform complete blood counts (CBCs) every 2 weeks for 12 weeks, then every 3 months thereafter, or as clinically indicated. In patients with advanced phase CML or Ph+ ALL, perform CBCs weekly for the first 2 months and then monthly thereafter, or as clinically indicated.
In addition to causing thrombocytopenia in human subjects, dasatinib caused platelet dysfunction in vitro. In all CML or Ph+ ALL clinical studies, ≥ grade 3 central nervous system (CNS) hemorrhages, including fatalities, occurred in < 1% of patients receiving SPRYCEL. Grade 3 or greater gastrointestinal hemorrhage, including fatalities, occurred in 4% of patients and generally required treatment interruptions and transfusions. Other cases of ≥ grade 3 hemorrhage occurred in 2% of patients. Most bleeding events in clinical studies were associated with severe thrombocytopenia.
Concomitant medications that inhibit platelet function or anticoagulants may increase the risk of hemorrhage.
SPRYCEL may cause fluid retention. After 5 years of follow-up in the randomized newly diagnosed chronic phase CML study (n=258), grade 3 or 4 fluid retention was reported in 5% of patients, including 3% of patients with grade 3 or 4 pleural effusion. In patients with newly diagnosed or imatinib resistant or intolerant chronic phase CML, grade 3 or 4 fluid retention occurred in 6% of patients treated with SPRYCEL at the recommended dose (n=548). In patients with advanced phase CML or Ph+ ALL treated with SPRYCEL at the recommended dose (n=304), grade 3 or 4 fluid retention was reported in 8% of patients, including grade 3 or 4 pleural effusion reported in 7% of patients.
Evaluate patients who develop symptoms of pleural effusion or other fluid retention, such as new or worsened dyspnea on exertion or at rest, pleuritic chest pain, or dry cough promptly with a chest x-ray or additional diagnostic imaging as appropriate. Fluid retention events were typically managed by supportive care measures that may include diuretics or short courses of steroids. Severe pleural effusion may require thoracentesis and oxygen therapy. Consider dose reduction or treatment interruption [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION and ADVERSE REACTIONS].
After 5 years of follow-up in the randomized newly diagnosed chronic phase CML trial (n=258), the following cardiac adverse events occurred: cardiac ischemic events (3.9% dasatinib vs 1.6% imatinib), cardiac related fluid retention (8.5% dasatinib vs 3.9% imatinib), and conduction system abnormalities, most commonly arrhythmia and palpitations (7.0% dasatinib vs 5.0% imatinib). Two cases (0.8%) of peripheral arterial occlusive disease occurred with imatinib and 2 (0.8%) transient ischemic attacks occurred with dasatinib. Monitor patients for signs or symptoms consistent with cardiac dysfunction and treat appropriately.
Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension
SPRYCEL may increase the risk of developing pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) which may occur any time after initiation, including after more than 1 year of treatment. Manifestations include dyspnea, fatigue, hypoxia, and fluid retention. PAH may be reversible on discontinuation of SPRYCEL. Evaluate patients for signs and symptoms of underlying cardiopulmonary disease prior to initiating SPRYCEL and during treatment. If PAH is confirmed, SPRYCEL should be permanently discontinued.
In vitro data suggest that dasatinib has the potential to prolong cardiac ventricular repolarization (QT interval). Of 2440 patients treated with SPRYCEL at all doses tested in clinical studies, 16 patients ( < 1%) had QTc prolongation reported as an adverse reaction. Twenty-two patients (1%) experienced a QTcF > 500 ms. In 865 patients with leukemia treated with SPRYCEL in five Phase 2 single-arm studies, the maximum mean changes in QTcF (90% upper bound CI) from baseline ranged from 7.0 to 13.4 ms.
SPRYCEL may increase the risk of prolongation of QTc in patients including those with hypokalemia or hypomagnesemia, patients with congenital long QT syndrome, patients taking antiarrhythmic medicines or other medicinal products that lead to QT prolongation, and cumulative high-dose anthracycline therapy. Correct hypokalemia or hypomagnesemia prior to and during SPRYCEL administration.
Severe Dermatologic Reactions
Cases of severe mucocutaneous dermatologic reactions, including Stevens-Johnson syndrome and erythema multiforme, have been reported in patients treated with SPRYCEL. Discontinue permanently in patients who experience a severe mucocutaneous reaction during treatment if no other etiology can be identified.
Tumor Lysis Syndrome
Tumor lysis syndrome has been reported in patients with resistance to prior imatinib therapy, primarily in advanced phase disease. Due to potential for tumor lysis syndrome, maintain adequate hydration, correct uric acid levels prior to initiating therapy with SPRYCEL, and monitor electrolyte levels. Patients with advanced stage disease and/or high tumor burden may be at increased risk and should be monitored more frequently [see ADVERSE REACTIONS].
Based on limited human data, SPRYCEL can cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman. Adverse pharmacologic effects of SPRYCEL including hydrops fetalis, fetal leukopenia and fetal thrombocytopenia have been reported with maternal exposure to SPRYCEL. Advise females of reproductive potential to avoid pregnancy, which may include the use of effective contraception, during treatment with SPRYCEL and for 30 days after the final dose [see Use in Specific Populations].
Patient Counseling Information
Advise the patient to read the FDA-approved patient labeling (PATIENT INFORMATION).
Patients should be informed of the possibility of serious bleeding and to report immediately any signs or symptoms suggestive of hemorrhage (unusual bleeding or easy bruising).
Patients should be informed of the possibility of developing low blood cell counts; they should be instructed to report immediately should fever develop, particularly in association with any suggestion of infection.
Patients should be informed of the possibility of developing fluid retention (swelling, weight gain, dry cough, chest pain on respiration or shortness of breath) and to seek medical attention promptly if those symptoms arise.
- Advise pregnant women of the potential risk to a fetus [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS and Use In Specific Populations].
- Advise females of reproductive potential to avoid pregnancy, which may include use of effective contraception during treatment with SPRYCEL and for 30 days after the final dose. Advise females to contact their healthcare provider if they become pregnant, or if pregnancy is suspected, while taking SPRYCEL [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS and Use in Specific Populations].
- Advise women that breastfeeding is not recommended during treatment with SPRYCEL and for 2 weeks after the final dose [see Use in Specific Populations].
Patients should be informed that they may experience nausea, vomiting, or diarrhea with SPRYCEL. If these symptoms are bothersome or persistent, they should seek medical attention.
Patients should be informed that they may experience headache or musculoskeletal pain with SPRYCEL. If these symptoms are bothersome or persistent, they should seek medical attention.
Patients should be informed that they may experience fatigue with SPRYCEL. If this symptom is bothersome or persistent, they should seek medical attention.
Patients should be informed that they may experience skin rash with SPRYCEL. If this symptom is bothersome or persistent, they should seek medical attention.
Patients should be informed that SPRYCEL contains 135 mg of lactose monohydrate in a 100-mg daily dose and 189 mg of lactose monohydrate in a 140-mg daily dose.
If the patient misses a dose of SPRYCEL, the patient should take the next scheduled dose at its regular time. The patient should not take two doses at the same time.
Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment Of Fertility
In a 2-year carcinogenicity study, rats were administered oral doses of dasatinib at 0.3, 1, and 3 mg/kg/day. The highest dose resulted in a plasma drug exposure (AUC) level approximately 60% of the human exposure at 100 mg once daily. Dasatinib induced a statistically significant increase in the combined incidence of squamous cell carcinomas and papillomas in the uterus and cervix of high-dose females and prostate adenoma in low-dose males.
Dasatinib was clastogenic when tested in vitro in Chinese hamster ovary cells, with and without metabolic activation. Dasatinib was not mutagenic when tested in an in vitro bacterial cell assay (Ames test) and was not genotoxic in an in vivo rat micronucleus study.
Dasatinib did not affect mating or fertility in male and female rats at plasma drug exposure (AUC) similar to the human exposure at 100 mg daily; however, dasatinib induced embryo lethality. In repeat dose studies, administration of dasatinib resulted in reduced size and secretion of seminal vesicles, and immature prostate, seminal vesicle, and testis. The administration of dasatinib resulted in uterine inflammation and mineralization in monkeys, and cystic ovaries and ovarian hypertrophy in rodents.
Use In Specific Populations
Based on limited human data, SPRYCEL can cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman. Adverse pharmacologic effects including hydrops fetalis, fetal leukopenia and fetal thrombocytopenia have been reported with maternal exposure to SPRYCEL. Animal reproduction studies in rats have demonstrated extensive mortality during organogenesis, the fetal period, and in neonates. Skeletal malformations were observed in a limited number of surviving rat and rabbit conceptuses. These findings occurred at dasatinib plasma concentrations below those in humans receiving therapeutic doses of dasatinib [see Data]. Advise a pregnant woman of the potential risk to a fetus.
The estimated background risk in the U.S. general population of major birth defects is 2%-4% and of miscarriage is 15%-20% of clinically recognized pregnancies.
Fetal/Neonatal Adverse Reactions
Transplacental transfer of dasatinib has been reported. Dasatinib has been measured in fetal plasma and amniotic fluid at concentrations comparable to those in maternal plasma. Hydrops fetalis, fetal leukopenia and fetal thrombocytopenia have been reported with maternal exposure to dasatinib. These adverse pharmacologic effects on the fetus are similar to adverse reactions observed in adult patients and may result in fetal harm or neonatal death [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
Based on human experience, dasatinib is suspected to cause congenital malformations, including neural tube defects, and harmful pharmacological effects on the fetus when administered during pregnancy.
In nonclinical studies, at plasma concentrations below those observed in humans receiving therapeutic doses of dasatinib, embryo-fetal toxicities were observed in rats and rabbits. Fetal death was observed in rats. In both rats and rabbits, the lowest doses of dasatinib tested (rat: 2.5 mg/kg/day [15 mg/m2/day] and rabbit: 0.5 mg/kg/day [6 mg/m2/day]) resulted in embryo-fetal toxicities. These doses produced maternal AUCs of 105 ng•hr/mL and 44 ng•hr/mL (0.1-fold the human AUC) in rats and rabbits, respectively. Embryo-fetal toxicities included skeletal malformations at multiple sites (scapula, humerus, femur, radius, ribs, and clavicle), reduced ossification (sternum; thoracic, lumbar, and sacral vertebrae; forepaw phalanges; pelvis; and hyoid body), edema, and microhepatia. In a pre-and postnatal development study in rats, administration of dasatinib from gestation day (GD) 16 through lactation day (LD) 20, GD 21 through LD 20, or LD 4 through LD 20 resulted in extensive pup mortality at maternal exposures that were below the exposures in patients treated with dasatinib at the recommended labeling dose.
No data are available regarding the presence of dasatinib in human milk, the effects of the drug on the breastfed infant or the effects of the drug on milk production. However, dasatinib is present in the milk of lactating rats. Because of the potential for serious adverse reactions in nursing infants from SPRYCEL, breastfeeding is not recommended during treatment with SPRYCEL and for 2 weeks after the final dose.
Females And Males Of Reproductive Potential
SPRYCEL can cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman [see Use in Specific Populations]. Advise females of reproductive potential to avoid pregnancy, which may include the use of effective contraceptive methods during treatment with SPRYCEL and for 30 days after the final dose.
Based on animal data, dasatinib may result in damage to female and male reproductive tissues [see Nonclinical Toxicology].
The safety and efficacy of SPRYCEL in patients less than 18 years of age have not been established.
No differences in confirmed Complete Cytogenetic Response (cCCyR) and MMR were observed between older and younger patients. Of the 2712 patients in clinical studies of SPRYCEL, 617 (23%) were 65 years of age and older, and 123 (5%) were 75 years of age and older. While the safety profile of SPRYCEL in the geriatric population was similar to that in the younger population, patients aged 65 years and older are more likely to experience the commonly reported adverse reactions of fatigue, pleural effusion, diarrhea, dyspnea, cough, lower gastrointestinal hemorrhage, and appetite disturbance, and more likely to experience the less frequently reported adverse reactions of abdominal distention, dizziness, pericardial effusion, congestive heart failure, hypertension, pulmonary edema and weight decrease, and should be monitored closely.
The effect of hepatic impairment on the pharmacokinetics of dasatinib was evaluated in healthy volunteers with normal liver function and patients with moderate (Child-Pugh class B) and severe (Child-Pugh class C) hepatic impairment. Compared to the healthy volunteers with normal hepatic function, the dose-normalized pharmacokinetic parameters were decreased in the patients with hepatic impairment.
No dosage adjustment is necessary in patients with hepatic impairment [see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY]. Caution is recommended when administering SPRYCEL to patients with hepatic impairment.
There are currently no clinical studies with SPRYCEL in patients with impaired renal function. Less than 4% of dasatinib and its metabolites are excreted via the kidney.This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.
Last reviewed on RxList: 9/4/2015
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