"Attendees at a medical conference last year applauded over and over at the news that glucose-lowering empagliflozin (Jardiance, Boehringer Ingelheim/Lilly) also significantly reduced the relative risk of both cardiovascular mortality and"...
There have been no clinical studies establishing conclusive evidence of macrovascular risk reduction with Starlix or any other antidiabetic drug.
All oral blood glucose lowering drugs that are absorbed systemically are capable of producing hypoglycemia. The frequency of hypoglycemia is related to the severity of the diabetes, the level of glycemic control, and other patient characteristics. Geriatric patients, malnourished patients, and those with adrenal or pituitary insufficiency or severe renal impairment are more susceptible to the glucose lowering effect of these treatments.
The risk of hypoglycemia may be increased by strenuous physical exercise, ingestion of alcohol, insufficient caloric intake on an acute or chronic basis, or combinations with other oral antidiabetic agents. Hypoglycemia may be difficult to recognize in patients with autonomic neuropathy and/or those who use beta-blockers. Starlix® (nateglinide) should be administered prior to meals to reduce the risk of hypoglycemia. Patients who skip meals should also skip their scheduled dose of Starlix to reduce the risk of hypoglycemia.
Starlix should be used with caution in patients with moderate-to-severe liver disease because such patients have not been studied.
Loss Of Glycemic Control
Transient loss of glycemic control may occur with fever, infection, trauma, or surgery. Insulin therapy may be needed instead of Starlix therapy at such times. Secondary failure, or reduced effectiveness of Starlix over a period of time, may occur.
Response to therapies should be periodically assessed with glucose values and HbA1C levels.
Carcinogenesis/Mutagenesis/Impairment Of Fertility
A two-year carcinogenicity study in Sprague-Dawley rats was performed with oral doses of nateglinide up to 900 mg/kg/day, which produced AUC exposures in male and female rats approximately 30 and 40 times the human therapeutic exposure respectively with a recommended Starlix dose of 120 mg, three times daily before meals. A two-year carcinogenicity study in B6C3F1 mice was performed with oral doses of nateglinide up to 400 mg/kg/day, which produced AUC exposures in male and female mice approximately 10 and 30 times the human therapeutic exposure with a recommended Starlix dose of 120 mg, three times daily before meals. No evidence of a tumorigenic response was found in either rats or mice.
Nateglinide was not genotoxic in the in vitro Ames test, mouse lymphoma assay, chromosome aberration assay in Chinese hamster lung cells, or in the in vivo mouse micronucleus test.
Impairment of Fertility
Fertility was unaffected by administration of nateglinide to rats at doses up to 600 mg/kg (approximately 16 times the human therapeutic exposure with a recommended Starlix dose of 120 mg three times daily before meals).
Pregnancy Category C
Nateglinide was not teratogenic in rats at doses up to 1000 mg/kg (approximately 60 times the human therapeutic exposure with a recommended Starlix dose of 120 mg, three times daily before meals). In the rabbit, embryonic development was adversely affected and the incidence of gallbladder agenesis or small gallbladder was increased at a dose of 500 mg/kg (approximately 40 times the human therapeutic exposure with a recommended Starlix dose of 120 mg, three times daily before meals). There are no adequate and wellcontrolled studies in pregnant women. Starlix should not be used during pregnancy.
Labor And Delivery
The effect of Starlix on labor and delivery in humans is not known.
Studies in lactating rats showed that nateglinide is excreted in the milk; the AUC0-48h ratio in milk to plasma was approximately 1:4. During the peri- and postnatal period body weights were lower in offspring of rats administered nateglinide at 1000 mg/kg (approximately 60 times the human therapeutic exposure with a recommended Starlix dose of 120 mg, three times daily before meals). It is not known whether Starlix is excreted in human milk. Because many drugs are excreted in human milk, Starlix should not be administered to a nursing woman.
Clinical trials to demonstrate the safety and effectiveness in pediatric patients have not been conducted.
No differences were observed in safety or efficacy of Starlix between patients age 65 and over, and those under age 65. However, greater sensitivity of some older individuals to Starlix therapy cannot be ruled out.This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.
Last reviewed on RxList: 12/14/2015
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