"In a response to mounting evidence, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) announced that the diabetes drug metformin can be used safely in patients with mild and, in some cases, moderate kidney impairment after decades of warning against it. "...
For intranasal use only.
Very rare cases of hyponatremia have been reported from world-wide postmarketing experience in patients treated with Stimate (desmopressin acetate). Stimate is a potent antidiuretic which, when administered, may lead to water intoxication and/ or hyponatremia. Unless properly diagnosed and treated hyponatremia can be fatal. Therefore, fluid restriction is recommended and should be discussed with the patient and/ or guardian. Careful medical supervision is required.
When Stimate Nasal Spray is administered, in particular in pediatric and geriatric patients, fluid intake should be adjusted downward in order to decrease the potential occurrence of water intoxication and hyponatremia (See PRECAUTIONS, Pediatric Use and Geriatric Use.) All patients receiving Stimate therapy should be observed for the following signs or symptoms associated with hyponatremia: headache, nausea/vomiting, decreased serum sodium, weight gain, restlessness, fatigue, lethargy, disorientation, depressed reflexes, loss of appetite, irritability, muscle weakness, muscle spasms or cramps and abnormal mental status such as hallucinations, decreased consciousness and confusion. Severe symptoms may include one or a combination of the following: seizure, coma and/or respiratory arrest. Particular attention should be paid to the possibility of the rare occurrence of an extreme decrease in plasma osmolality that may result in seizures that could lead to coma.
Stimate® Nasal Spray should not be used to treat patients with Type IIB von Willebrand's disease since platelet aggregation may be induced.
Desmopressin acetate has infrequently produced changes in blood pressure causing either a slight elevation in blood pressure or a transient fall in blood pressure and a compensatory increase in heart rate. The drug should be used with caution in patients with coronary artery insufficiency and/or hypertensive cardiovascular disease.
Stimate® Nasal Spray should be used with caution in patients with conditions associated with fluid and electrolyte imbalance, such as cystic fibrosis, heart failure and renal disorders because these patients are prone to hyponatremia.
There have been rare reports of thrombotic events (thrombosis, acute cerebrovascular thrombosis, acute myocardial infarction) following desmopressin acetate injection in patients predisposed to thrombus formation. No causality has been determined; however, the drug should be used with caution in these patients.
Severe allergic reactions have been reported rarely. Fatal anaphylaxis has been reported in one patient who received intravenous DDAVP® (desmopressin acetate). It is not known whether antibodies to desmopressin acetate are produced after repeated administration. Since Stimate® Nasal Spray is used intranasally, changes in the nasal mucosa such as scarring, edema, or other disease may cause erratic, unreliable absorption in which case Stimate® Nasal Spray should be discontinued until the nasal problems resolve. For such situations, DDAVP® Injection should be considered.
Information for Patients
Patients should be informed that the bottle accurately delivers 25 doses of 150 mcg each. Any solution remaining after 25 doses should be discarded since the amount delivered thereafter may be substantially less than 150 mcg of drug. No attempt should be made to transfer remaining solution to another bottle. Patients should be instructed to read accompanying directions on use of the spray pump carefully before use.
Patients should also be advised that if bleeding is not controlled, the physician should be contacted.
Laboratory tests for assessing patient status include levels of Factor VIII coagulant, Factor VIII antigen and Factor VIII ristocetin cofactor (von Willebrand factor) as well as activated partial thromboplastin time. Factor VIII coagulant activity should be determined before giving Stimate® Nasal Spray for hemostasis. If Factor VIII coagulant activity is present at less than 5% of normal, Stimate® Nasal Spray should not be relied on.
von Willebrand's Disease
Laboratory tests for assessing patient status include levels of Factor VIII coagulant activity, VWF:RCo and VWF:Ag.
Carcinogenicity, Mutagenicity, Impairment of Fertility
There have been no long-term studies in animals to assess the carcinogenic, mutagenic or impairment of fertility potential of Stimate® Nasal Spray.
Pregnancy Category B
Reproduction studies performed in rats and rabbits by the subcutaneous route at doses up to 10 mcg/kg/day have revealed no evidence of harm to the fetus due to desmopressin acetate. This dose is equivalent to 10 times (for Factor VIII stimulation) or 38 times (for diabetes insipidus) the systemic human dose based on a mg/M2 surface area.
There are no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women. Several publications of desmopressin acetate's use in the management of diabetes insipidus during pregnancy are available; these include a few anecdotal reports of congenital anomalies and low birth weight babies. However, no causal connection between these events and desmopressin acetate has been established. A 15-year, Swedish epidemiologic study of the use of desmopressin acetate in pregnant women with diabetes insipidus found the rate of birth defects to be no greater than that in the general population. As opposed to preparations containing natural hormones, desmopressin acetate in antidiuretic doses has no uterotonic action and the physician will have to weigh the therapeutic advantages against the possible risks in each case.
There have been no controlled studies in nursing mothers. A single study in postpartum women demonstrated a marked change in plasma, but little if any change in assayable DDAVP® in breast milk following an intranasal dose of 10 mcg. It is not known whether this drug is excreted in human milk. Because many drugs are excreted in human milk, caution should be exercised when Stimate® Nasal Spray is administered to a nursing woman.
Use in infants and children will require careful fluid intake restriction to prevent possible hyponatremia and water intoxication. Stimate® Nasal Spray should not be used in infants younger than 11 months in the treatment of hemophilia A or von Willebrand's disease; safety and effectiveness in children between 11 months and 12 years of age has been demonstrated.
Clinical studies of Stimate® did not include sufficient numbers of subjects aged 65 and over to determine whether they respond differently than younger subjects. However, other post-marketing experience has indicated the occurrence of hyponatremia with the use of desmopressin acetate and fluid overload.
Therefore, in elderly patients fluid intake should be adjusted downward in an effort to decrease the potential occurrence of water intoxication and hyponatremia. Particular attention should be paid to the possibility of the rare occurrence of an extreme decrease in plasma osmolality that may result in seizures, and that could lead to coma. Patients who do not have need of antidiuretic hormone for its antidiuretic effect should be cautioned to ingest only enough fluid to satisfy thirst, in an effort to decrease the potential occurrence of water intoxication and hyponatremia.
As for all patients, dosing for geriatric patients should be appropriate to their clinical condition.This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.
Last reviewed on RxList: 6/17/2013
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