John Mersch, MD, FAAP
Dr. Mersch received his Bachelor of Arts degree from the University of California, San Diego, and prior to entering the University Of Southern California School Of Medicine, was a graduate student (attaining PhD candidate status) in Experimental Pathology at USC. He attended internship and residency at Children's Hospital Los Angeles.
William C. Shiel Jr., MD, FACP, FACR
Dr. Shiel received a Bachelor of Science degree with honors from the University of Notre Dame. There he was involved in research in radiation biology and received the Huisking Scholarship. After graduating from St. Louis University School of Medicine, he completed his Internal Medicine residency and Rheumatology fellowship at the University of California, Irvine. He is board-certified in Internal Medicine and Rheumatology.
Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD
Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD, is a U.S. board-certified Anatomic Pathologist with subspecialty training in the fields of Experimental and Molecular Pathology. Dr. Stöppler's educational background includes a BA with Highest Distinction from the University of Virginia and an MD from the University of North Carolina. She completed residency training in Anatomic Pathology at Georgetown University followed by subspecialty fellowship training in molecular diagnostics and experimental pathology.
- What is strep throat and what causes strep throat?
- What are the signs and symptoms of strep throat?
- Are the signs and symptoms of strep throat different in various age groups?
- Is strep throat contagious?
- How is the diagnosis of strep throat established?
- What are home remedies, OTC, and medical treatments for strep throat?
- What are the potential complications of strep throat?
- How can I prevent contracting strep throat?
- Strep throat facts
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- Patient Comments: Strep Throat - Experience
- Patient Comments: Strep Throat - Symptoms
- Patient Comments: Strep Throat - Contagious
- Patient Comments: Strep Throat - Treatments
- Patient Comments: Strep Throat - Diagnosis
What is strep throat and what causes strep throat?
Strep throat is a bacterial infection of the soft palate and tonsillar region. Microbiologists specifically identify the member of the Streptococcus bacterial family that causes strep throat as "GAS" (Group A, beta hemolytic, streptococcus pyogenes). Strep throat is most common in young children and adolescents, but it is not unusual in toddlers and adults. It is highly contagious and it is present most commonly in the community during the winter months. Interestingly, the symptoms and physical signs may vary depending upon the age of the infected patient.
What are the signs and symptoms of strep throat?
Signs of strep throat are not unique - indeed many viral infections (which cause the large majority of sore throats) can have identical signs and symptoms as a GAS infection. Typically, an older child and adolescent will have several core symptoms:
- Fever (generally 102 F [38.88 C] and higher)
- Sore throat (may vary from mild to moderate in severity)
- Upset stomach with nausea occasionally severe enough to cause mild vomiting
Of note is the fact that runny nose, cough, hoarse voice, muscle aches, diarrhea and oral blisters are generally not seen with a laboratory confirmed strep throat infection. These latter symptoms are more commonly indicative of a sore throat caused by a virus.
Physical examination with a strep throat infection will commonly demonstrate:
- Redness of the soft palate, uvula (the "punching bag" structure hanging from the back of the soft palate) and tonsils
- A purulent discharge on the tonsils (exudate)
- Petechiae (1-2 mm bright red "dots" which represent ruptured capillaries) scattered on the soft palate
- Enlarged and tender neck lymph nodes (also known as lymph glands), and occasionally
- A diffuse rash over the torso and groin region. The classic description of this rash is that of "goose bumps on a moderate sunburn."
The presence of a strep infection and this specific rash is termed scarlet fever. Such a diagnosis does not imply a more severe GAS infection or imply any change in prognosis or management. The rash is not contagious. It is important to note that while most patients with strep throat will experience these signs and symptoms, not all will necessarily be present in each individual.
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