Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD
Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD, is a U.S. board-certified Anatomic Pathologist with subspecialty training in the fields of Experimental and Molecular Pathology. Dr. Stöppler's educational background includes a BA with Highest Distinction from the University of Virginia and an MD from the University of North Carolina. She completed residency training in Anatomic Pathology at Georgetown University followed by subspecialty fellowship training in molecular diagnostics and experimental pathology.
Roxanne Dryden-Edwards, MD
Dr. Roxanne Dryden-Edwards is an adult, child, and adolescent psychiatrist. She is a former Chair of the Committee on Developmental Disabilities for the American Psychiatric Association, Assistant Professor of Psychiatry at Johns Hopkins Hospital in Baltimore, Maryland, and Medical Director of the National Center for Children and Families in Bethesda, Maryland.
In this Article
- Stress facts
- What is stress?
- A brief history of stress
- What are the signs and symptoms of poorly managed stress?
- Who is most vulnerable to stress? What are the risk factors for stress?
- Teen stress
- What is the healthy response to stress?
- How does the response to stress work?
- What is the role of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis (grouping) in stress?
- What is the role of the locus coeruleus in stress?
- How do the connections in the brain work in stress?
- What do we know about using (activating) and overusing our internal systems that respond to stress?
- What are the effects of stress on medical and psychological conditions?
- Conclusions about the effects of stress
- What can people do for stress management? What are home remedies to combat stress symptoms?
- What's in the future for stress?
- Eat Your Way to Less Stress
- Take the Stress Quiz
- Exercise, Diet and Stress Reduction
- Stress Rxlist FAQs
- Find a local Psychiatrist in your town
Who is most vulnerable to stress? What are the risk factors for stress?
Stress comes in many forms and affects people of all ages and all walks of life. No external standards can be applied to predict stress levels in
However, it is possible to make some generalizations. People with adequate or strong social support networks report less stress and overall improved mental health in comparison to those without adequate social support. People who are poorly nourished, who get inadequate sleep, or who are physically unwell also have a reduced capacity to handle pressures and stresses of everyday life and may report higher stress levels. Some stressors are particularly associated with certain age groups or life stages. Children, teens, the newly married, working parents, single parents, and seniors are examples of the groups who often face common stressors related to life transitions.
As one example of stress related to a life transition, the teen years often bring about an increase in perceived stress as young adults learn to cope with increasing demands and pressures along with changes in their bodies. Studies have shown that excessive stress during the teen years can have a negative impact upon both physical and mental health later in life. For example, teen stress is a risk factor for the development of teen depression, a serious condition that carries an increased risk of suicide.
Fortunately, effective stress-management strategies can diminish the ill effects of stress. The presence of intact, strong, supportive social support networks among friends, family, educational and religious or other group affiliations can help reduce the subjective experience of stress during the teen years. Recognition of the problem and helping teens develop stress-management skills can also be valuable preventive measures. In severe cases, a physician or other health-care professional can recommend counseling or other treatments that can reduce the long-term risks of teen stress.
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