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Lactic Acidosis/Severe Hepatomegaly With Steatosis
Lactic acidosis and severe hepatomegaly with steatosis, including fatal cases, have been reported with the use of nucleoside analogs, including tenofovir DF, a component of STRIBILD, in combination with other antiretrovirals. A majority of these cases have been in women. Obesity and prolonged nucleoside exposure may be risk factors. Particular caution should be exercised when administering nucleoside analogs to any patient with known risk factors for liver disease; however, cases have also been reported in patients with no known risk factors. Treatment with STRIBILD should be suspended in any patient who develops clinical or laboratory findings suggestive of lactic acidosis or pronounced hepatotoxicity (which may include hepatomegaly and steatosis even in the absence of marked transaminase elevations).
Patients Coinfected With HIV-1 And HBV
It is recommended that all patients with HIV-1 be tested for the presence of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) before initiating antiretroviral therapy. STRIBILD is not approved for the treatment of chronic HBV infection and the safety and efficacy of STRIBILD have not been established in patients coinfected with HBV and HIV-1. Severe acute exacerbations of hepatitis B have been reported in patients who are coinfected with HBV and HIV-1 and have discontinued emtricitabine or tenofovir DF, two of the components of STRIBILD. In some patients infected with HBV and treated with EMTRIVA, the exacerbations of hepatitis B were associated with liver decompensation and liver failure. Patients who are coinfected with HIV-1 and HBV should be closely monitored with both clinical and laboratory follow-up for at least several months after stopping treatment with STRIBILD. If appropriate, initiation of anti-hepatitis B therapy may be warranted.
New Onset Or Worsening Renal Impairment
Renal impairment, including cases of acute renal failure and Fanconi syndrome (renal tubular injury with severe hypophosphatemia), has been reported with the use of tenofovir DF, a component of STRIBILD, and with the use of STRIBILD [see ADVERSE REACTIONS].
In the clinical trials of STRIBILD over 144 weeks, 13 (1.9%) subjects in the STRIBILD group (N=701), 8 (2.3%) subjects in the ATV + RTV + TRUVADA group (N=355) and no subjects in the ATRIPLA group (N = 352) discontinued study drug due to a renal adverse reaction. Of these discontinuations, 8 in the STRIBILD group and 1 in the ATV + RTV + TRUVADA group occurred during the first 48 weeks. Four (0.6%) subjects who received STRIBILD developed laboratory findings consistent with proximal renal tubular dysfunction leading to discontinuation of STRIBILD during the first 48 weeks of treatment. Two of the four subjects had renal impairment (i.e. estimated creatinine clearance less than 70 mL per minute) at baseline. The laboratory findings in these 4 subjects improved but did not completely resolve in all subjects upon discontinuation of STRIBILD. Renal replacement therapy was not required for these subjects. One (0.3%) subject who received ATV + RTV + TRUVADA developed laboratory findings consistent with proximal renal tubular dysfunction leading to discontinuation of ATV + RTV + TRUVADA after Week 96.
STRIBILD should be avoided with concurrent or recent use of a nephrotoxic agent. (e.g., high-dose or multiple non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)) [see DRUG INTERACTIONS]. Cases of acute renal failure after initiation of high dose or multiple NSAIDs have been reported in HIV-infected patients with risk factors for renal dysfunction who appeared stable on tenofovir DF. Some patients required hospitalization and renal replacement therapy. Alternatives to NSAIDs should be considered, if needed, in patients at risk for renal dysfunction.
Persistent or worsening bone pain, pain in extremities, fractures and/or muscular pain or weakness may be manifestations of proximal renal tubulopathy and should prompt an evaluation of renal function in at-risk patients.
Estimated creatinine clearance, urine glucose and urine protein should be documented in all patients prior to initiating therapy. Initiation of STRIBILD in patients with estimated creatinine clearance below 70 mL per minute is not recommended.
Routine monitoring of estimated creatinine clearance, urine glucose, and urine protein should be performed during STRIBILD therapy in all patients. Additionally, serum phosphorus should be measured in patients at risk for renal impairment.
Although cobicistat (a component of STRIBILD) may cause modest increases in serum creatinine and modest declines in estimated creatinine clearance without affecting renal glomerular function [see ADVERSE REACTIONS], patients who experience a confirmed increase in serum creatinine of greater than 0.4 mg per dL from baseline should be closely monitored for renal safety.
The emtricitabine and tenofovir DF components of STRIBILD are primarily excreted by the kidney. STRIBILD should be discontinued if estimated creatinine clearance declines below 50 mL per minute as dose interval adjustment required for emtricitabine and tenofovir DF cannot be achieved with the fixed-dose combination tablet.
Avoid Use With Other Antiretroviral Products
STRIBILD is indicated for use as a complete regimen for the treatment of HIV-1 infection and coadministration with other antiretroviral products is not recommended.
STRIBILD is not recommended for coadministration with the following:
- emtricitabine or tenofovir DF (ATRIPLA, COMPLERA, EMTRIVA, TRUVADA, VIREAD);
- products containing lamivudine (COMBIVIR, EPIVIR, EPIVIR-HBV, EPZICOM, TRIZIVIR) or adefovir dipivoxil (HEPSERA);
- ritonavir (NORVIR, KALETRA).
Bone Effects Of Tenofovir DF
Bone Mineral Density
In clinical trials in HIV-1 infected adults, tenofovir DF (a component of STRIBILD) was associated with slightly greater decreases in bone mineral density (BMD) and increases in biochemical markers of bone metabolism, suggesting increased bone turnover relative to comparators. Serum parathyroid hormone levels and 1.25 Vitamin D levels were also higher in subjects receiving tenofovir DF. For additional information, see ADVERSE REACTIONS and consult the VIREAD prescribing information.
The effects of tenofovir DF-associated changes in BMD and biochemical markers on long-term bone health and future fracture risk are unknown. Assessment of BMD should be considered for HIV-1 infected patients who have a history of pathologic bone fracture or other risk factors for osteoporosis or bone loss. Although the effect of supplementation with calcium and vitamin D was not studied, such supplementation may be beneficial in all patients. If bone abnormalities are suspected, then appropriate consultation should be obtained.
Cases of osteomalacia associated with proximal renal tubulopathy, manifested as bone pain or pain in extremities and which may contribute to fractures, have been reported in association with the use of tenofovir DF [see ADVERSE REACTIONS]. Arthralgias and muscle pain or weakness have also been reported in cases of proximal renal tubulopathy. Hypophosphatemia and osteomalacia secondary to proximal renal tubulopathy should be considered in patients at risk of renal dysfunction who present with persistent or worsening bone or muscle symptoms while receiving products containing tenofovir DF [see New Onset or Worsening Renal Impairment].
Redistribution/accumulation of body fat including central obesity, dorsocervical fat enlargement (buffalo hump), peripheral wasting, facial wasting, breast enlargement, and “cushingoid appearance” have been observed in patients receiving antiretroviral therapy. The mechanism and long-term consequences of these events are currently unknown. A causal relationship has not been established.
Immune Reconstitution Syndrome
Immune reconstitution syndrome has been reported in patients treated with combination antiretroviral therapy, including STRIBILD. During the initial phase of combination antiretroviral treatment, patients whose immune system responds may develop an inflammatory response to indolent or residual opportunistic infections [such as Mycobacterium avium infection, cytomegalovirus, Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PCP), or tuberculosis], which may necessitate further evaluation and treatment.
Autoimmune disorders (such as Graves' disease, polymyositis, and Guillain-Barré syndrome) have also been reported to occur in the setting of immune reconstitution, however, the time to onset is more variable, and can occur many months after initiation of treatment.
Patient Counseling Information
Advise the patient to read the FDA-approved patient labeling (PATIENT INFORMATION).
A statement to patients and healthcare providers is included on the product's bottle label: ALERT: Find out about medicines that should NOT be taken with STRIBILD.
Patients should be advised that:
- STRIBILD may interact with many drugs; therefore, patients should be advised to report to their healthcare provider the use of any other prescription or nonprescription medication or herbal products including St. John's wort.
- Patients should remain under the care of a healthcare provider when using STRIBILD.
- Patients should be informed that STRIBILD is not a cure for HIV-1 infection. Patients should stay on continuous HIV therapy to control HIV-1 infection and decrease HIV-related illnesses. Patients should be told that sustained decreases in plasma HIV RNA have been associated with a reduced risk of progression to AIDS and death.
- Patients should avoid doing things that can spread HIV-1
infection to others.
- Do not share needles or other injection equipment.
- Do not share personal items that can have blood or body fluids on them, like toothbrushes and razor blades.
- Do not have any kind of sex without protection. Always practice safer sex by using a latex or polyurethane condom to lower the chance of sexual contact with semen, vaginal secretions, or blood.
- Do not breastfeed. At least two of the drugs contained in STRIBILD can be passed to the baby in breast milk. It is not known whether this could harm the baby. Also, mothers with HIV-1 should not breastfeed because HIV-1 can be passed to the baby in breast milk.
- It is important to take STRIBILD on a regular dosing schedule with food and to avoid missing doses.
- Do not miss a dose of STRIBILD. If a patient misses a dose of STRIBILD, the patient should take the missed dose as soon as they remember. If it is almost time for the next dose of STRIBILD, the patient should not take the missed dose, but resume the usual dosing schedule. Inform the patient that he or she should not take more or less than the prescribed dose of STRIBILD at any one time.
- Lactic acidosis and severe hepatomegaly with steatosis, including fatal cases, have been reported. Advise patients that treatment with STRIBILD should be suspended if they develop clinical symptoms suggestive of lactic acidosis or pronounced hepatotoxicity (including nausea, vomiting, unusual or unexpected stomach discomfort, and weakness) [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
- Instruct the patient that hepatitis B testing is recommended prior to initiating antiretroviral therapy. Severe acute exacerbations of hepatitis B have been reported in patients who are coinfected with HBV and HIV-1 and have discontinued EMTRIVA or VIREAD [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]. STRIBILD should not be discontinued without first informing their healthcare provider.
- Renal impairment, including cases of acute renal failure and Fanconi syndrome, has been reported in association with the use of STRIBILD. STRIBILD should be avoided with concurrent or recent use of a nephrotoxic agent (e.g., high dose or multiple NSAIDs) [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
- STRIBILD should not be coadministered with other antiretroviral products because it provides a complete treatment regimen and because of potential drug interactions [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS and DRUG INTERACTIONS].
- STRIBILD should not be administered in combination with ATRIPLA, COMPLERA, EMTRIVA, TRUVADA, or VIREAD; with drugs containing lamivudine, including COMBIVIR, EPIVIR or EPIVIR-HBV, EPZICOM, or TRIZIVIR; with drugs containing RTV or regimens containing RTV; or with HEPSERA [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
- Decreases in bone mineral density have been observed with the use of STRIBILD. Assessment of bone mineral density (BMD) should be considered in patients who have a history of pathologic bone fracture or other risk factors for osteoporosis or bone loss [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
- Redistribution or accumulation of body fat may occur in patients receiving antiretroviral therapy and that the cause and long-term health effects of these conditions are not known [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
- In some patients with advanced HIV infection (AIDS), signs and symptoms of inflammation from previous infections may occur soon after anti-HIV treatment is started. It is believed that these symptoms are due to an improvement in the body's immune response, enabling the body to fight infections that may have been present with no obvious symptoms. Patients should be advised to inform their healthcare provider immediately of any symptoms of infection [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment Of Fertility
Long-term carcinogenicity studies of elvitegravir were carried out in mice (104 weeks) and in rats for up to 88 weeks (males) and 90 weeks (females). No drug-related increases in tumor incidence were found in mice at doses up to 2000 mg per kg per day alone or in combination with 25 mg per kg per day RTV at exposures 3- and 14fold, respectively, the human systemic exposure at the recommended daily dose of 150 mg. No drug-related increases in tumor incidence were found in rats at doses up to 2000 mg per kg per day at exposures 12- to 27-fold, respectively in male and female, the human systemic exposure.
Elvitegravir was not genotoxic in the reverse mutation bacterial test (Ames test) and the rat micronucleus assay. In an in vitro chromosomal aberration test, elvitegravir was negative with metabolic activation; however, an equivocal response was observed without activation.
Elvitegravir did not affect fertility in male and female rats at approximately 16- and 30fold higher exposures (AUC), respectively, than in humans at the therapeutic 150 mg daily dose.
Fertility was normal in the offspring of rats exposed daily from before birth (in utero) through sexual maturity at daily exposures (AUC) of approximately 18-fold higher than human exposures at the recommended 150 mg daily dose.
In a long-term carcinogenicity study in mice, no drug-related increases in tumor incidence were observed at doses up to 50 and 100 mg/kg/day (males and females, respectively). Cobicistat exposures at these doses were approximately 7 (male) and 16 (females) times, respectively, the human systemic exposure at the therapeutic daily dose. In a long-term carcinogenicity study of cobicistat in rats, an increased incidence of follicular cell adenomas and/or carcinomas in the thyroid gland was observed at doses of 25 and 50 mg/kg/day in males, and at 30 mg/kg/day in females. The follicular cell findings are considered to be rat-specific, secondary to hepatic microsomal enzyme induction and thyroid hormone imbalance, and are not relevant for humans. At the highest doses tested in the rat carcinogenicity study, systemic exposures were approximately 2 times the human systemic exposure at the therapeutic daily dose.
Cobicistat was not genotoxic in the reverse mutation bacterial test (Ames test), mouse lymphoma or rat micronucleus assays.
Cobicistat did not affect fertility in male or female rats at daily exposures (AUC) approximately 4-fold higher than human exposures at the recommended 150 mg daily dose.
Fertility was normal in the offspring of rats exposed daily from before birth (in utero) through sexual maturity at daily exposures (AUC) of approximately 1.2-fold higher than human exposures at the recommended 150 mg daily dose.
In long-term carcinogenicity studies of emtricitabine, no drug-related increases in tumor incidence were found in mice at doses up to 750 mg per kg per day (23 times the human systemic exposure at the therapeutic dose of 200 mg per day) or in rats at doses up to 600 mg per kg per day (28 times the human systemic exposure at the therapeutic dose).
Emtricitabine was not genotoxic in the reverse mutation bacterial test (Ames test), mouse lymphoma or mouse micronucleus assays.
Emtricitabine did not affect fertility in male rats at approximately 140-fold or in male and female mice at approximately 60-fold higher exposures (AUC) than in humans given the recommended 200 mg daily dose. Fertility was normal in the offspring of mice exposed daily from before birth (in utero) through sexual maturity at daily exposures (AUC) of approximately 60-fold higher than human exposures at the recommended 200 mg daily dose.
Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate
Long-term oral carcinogenicity studies of tenofovir DF in mice and rats were carried out at exposures up to approximately 10 times (mice) and 4 times (rats) those observed in humans at the therapeutic dose for HIV-1 infection. At the high dose in female mice, liver adenomas were increased at exposures 10 times of that in humans. In rats, the study was negative for carcinogenic findings at exposures up to 4 times that observed in humans at the therapeutic dose.
Tenofovir DF was mutagenic in the in vitro mouse lymphoma assay and negative in an in vitro bacterial mutagenicity test (Ames test). In an in vivo mouse micronucleus assay, tenofovir DF was negative when administered to male mice.
There were no effects on fertility, mating performance or early embryonic development when tenofovir DF was administered to male rats at a dose equivalent to 10 times the human dose based on body surface area comparisons for 28 days prior to mating and to female rats for 15 days prior to mating through day seven of gestation. There was, however, an alteration of the estrous cycle in female rats.
Use In Specific Populations
Pregnancy Category B
There are no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women. Because animal reproduction studies are not always predictive of human response, STRIBILD should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus.
Antiretroviral Pregnancy Registry
To monitor fetal outcomes of pregnant women exposed to STRIBILD, an Antiretroviral Pregnancy Registry has been established. Healthcare providers are encouraged to register patients by calling 1-800-258-4263.
Studies in animals have shown no evidence of teratogenicity or an effect on reproductive function. In offspring from rat and rabbit dams treated with elvitegravir during pregnancy, there were no toxicologically significant effects on developmental endpoints. The exposures (AUC) at the embryo-fetal No Observed Adverse Effects Levels (NOAELs) in rats and rabbits were respectively 23 and 0.2 times higher than the exposure in humans at the recommended daily dose of 150 mg.
Studies in animals have shown no evidence of teratogenicity or an effect on reproductive function. In offspring from rat and rabbit dams treated with cobicistat during pregnancy, there were no toxicologically significant effects on developmental endpoints. The exposures (AUC) at the embryo-fetal NOAELs in rats and rabbits were respectively 1.8 and 4.3 times higher than the exposure in humans at the recommended daily dose of 150 mg.
The incidence of fetal variations and malformations was not increased in embryo-fetal toxicity studies performed with emtricitabine in mice at exposures (AUC) approximately 60 times higher and in rabbits at approximately 120 times higher than human exposures at the recommended daily dose.
Reproduction studies have been performed in rats and rabbits at doses up to 14 and 19 times the human dose based on body surface area comparisons and revealed no evidence of impaired fertility or harm to the fetus due to tenofovir.
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommend that HIV-infected mothers not breastfeed their infants to avoid risking postnatal transmission of HIV. Studies in rats have demonstrated that elvitegravir, cobicistat, and tenofovir are secreted in milk. It is not known whether elvitegravir or cobicistat is excreted in human milk.
In humans, samples of breast milk obtained from five HIV-1 infected mothers show that emtricitabine is secreted in human milk. Breastfeeding infants whose mothers are being treated with emtricitabine may be at risk for developing viral resistance to emtricitabine. Other emtricitabine-associated risks in infants breastfed by mothers being treated with emtricitabine are unknown.
Samples of breast milk obtained from five HIV-1 infected mothers show that tenofovir is secreted in human milk. Tenofovir-associated risks, including the risk of viral resistance to tenofovir, in infants breastfed by mothers being treated with tenofovir disoproxil fumarate are unknown.
Because of both the potential for HIV transmission and the potential for serious adverse reactions in nursing infants, mothers should be instructed not to breastfeed if they are receiving STRIBILD.
Safety and effectiveness of STRIBILD in pediatric patients less than 18 years of age have not been established [see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY].
Clinical studies of STRIBILD did not include sufficient numbers of subjects aged 65 and over to determine whether they respond differently from younger subjects. In general, caution should be exercised in the administration of STRIBILD in elderly patients, keeping in mind the greater frequency of decreased hepatic, renal, or cardiac function, and of concomitant disease or other drug therapy [see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY].
Initiation of STRIBILD in patients with estimated creatinine clearance below 70 mL per min is not recommended. Because STRIBILD is a fixed-dose combination tablet, STRIBILD should be discontinued if estimated creatinine clearance declines below 50 mL per minute during treatment with STRIBILD as dose interval adjustment required for emtricitabine and tenofovir DF cannot be achieved [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS, ADVERSE REACTIONS, CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY, and Clinical Studies].
Clinical Trials in Subjects with Mild to Moderate Renal Impairment
In Study 118, 33 HIV-1 infected treatment na´ve subjects with mild to moderate renal impairment (eGFR by Cockcroft-Gault method between 50 and 89 mL/minute) were studied in an open-label clinical trial evaluating the safety of 48 weeks of treatment with STRIBILD. After 48 weeks of treatment, the mean change in serum creatinine was 0.17 ± 0.14 mg/dL and the mean change in eGFR by Cockcroft-Gault method was -6.9 ± 9.0 mL/minute for subjects treated with STRIBILD.
Twelve of the 33 subjects studied had baseline eGFR between 50 and 70 mL/minute. Three subjects, all with baseline eGFR between 50-60 mL/minute, discontinued STRIBLD due to a renal adverse event. The safety of STRIBILD among 21 of the 33 subjects with baseline eGFR greater than or equal to 70 mL/minute was consistent with the safety profile in Studies 102 and 103.
No dose adjustment of STRIBILD is required in patients with mild (Child-Pugh Class A) or moderate (Child-Pugh Class B) hepatic impairment. No pharmacokinetic or safety data are available regarding the use of STRIBILD in patients with severe hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh Class C). Therefore, STRIBILD is not recommended for use in patients with severe hepatic impairment [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION and CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY].
Last reviewed on RxList: 9/11/2014
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.
Additional Stribild Information
- Stribild Drug Interactions Center: elvitegr-cobicist-emtric-tenof oral
- Stribild Side Effects Center
- Stribild FDA Approved Prescribing Information including Dosage
Report Problems to the Food and Drug Administration
You are encouraged to report negative side effects of prescription drugs to the FDA. Visit the FDA MedWatch website or call 1-800-FDA-1088.
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