Surgical Sterilization (cont.)
Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD
Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD, is a U.S. board-certified Anatomic Pathologist with subspecialty training in the fields of Experimental and Molecular Pathology. Dr. Stöppler's educational background includes a BA with Highest Distinction from the University of Virginia and an MD from the University of North Carolina. She completed residency training in Anatomic Pathology at Georgetown University followed by subspecialty fellowship training in molecular diagnostics and experimental pathology.
William C. Shiel Jr., MD, FACP, FACR
Dr. Shiel received a Bachelor of Science degree with honors from the University of Notre Dame. There he was involved in research in radiation biology and received the Huisking Scholarship. After graduating from St. Louis University School of Medicine, he completed his Internal Medicine residency and Rheumatology fellowship at the University of California, Irvine. He is board-certified in Internal Medicine and Rheumatology.
In this Article
- Introduction to birth control
- Permanent methods of contraception (surgical sterilization)
- Tubal ligation
- Hysteroscopic sterilization
- Find a local Obstetrician-Gynecologist in your town
Hysteroscopic sterilization is a nonsurgical form of permanent birth control in which a physician inserts a 4-centimeter (1.6 inch) long metal coil into each one of a woman's two Fallopian tubes via a scope passed through the cervix into the uterus (hysteroscope), and from there into the openings of the Fallopian tubes. Over the next few months, tissue grows over the coil to form a plug that prevents fertilized eggs from traveling from the ovaries to the uterus.
The procedure takes about 30 minutes, can be done in a doctor's office, and usually requires only a local anesthetic. During a 3-month period after the coils are inserted, women must use other forms of birth control until their physician verifies by an imaging test known as a hysterosalpingogram (HSG) that the Fallopian tubes are completely blocked.
Like tubal ligation, this form of sterilization is permanent (not reversible) and is designed as an alternative to surgical sterilization which requires general anesthesia and an incision. About 6% of women who have the procedure develop side effects, mainly due to improper placement of the coils.
This form of sterilization, like other methods of surgical sterilization, does not protect a woman or her partner from sexually transmitted diseases (STDs).
A hysterectomy is the surgical removal of a woman's uterus and, depending on her overall health status and the reason for the operation, perhaps her ovaries as well. No woman who has had a hysterectomy can become pregnant; it is an irreversible method of birth control and absolute sterilization. A laparoscopic hysterectomy (removal of the uterus through tiny incisions in the abdomen through which instruments are placed) is possible when there are no complications and no suspicion of cancer. A partial hysterectomy, which spares the cervix and removes the upper part of the uterus, is also a common surgical technique.
If a woman has other chronic medical problems that may be helped by a hysterectomy (such as abnormally excessive menstrual bleeding, uterine fibroids, uterine growths), than this may be an appropriate procedure for her to consider. Otherwise, contraception should be considered a secondary benefit and not a sole reason to have the procedure.
Peterson HB, Jeng G, Folger SG, Hillis SA, Marchbanks PA, Wilcox LS; U.S. Collaborative Review of Sterilization Working Group. The risk of menstrual abnormalities after tubal sterilization. U.S. Collaborative Review of Sterilization Working Group. N Engl J Med. 2000 Dec 7;343(23):1681-7.
Previous contributing authors: Barbara K. Hecht, Ph.D. and Carolyn Janet Crandall, MD, FACP
Last Editorial Review: 1/3/2011
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