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Sutent

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Sutent

Sutent

WARNINGS

Included as part of the PRECAUTIONS section.

PRECAUTIONS

Hepatotoxicity

SUTENT has been associated with hepatotoxicity, which may result in liver failure or death. Liver failure has been observed in clinical trials (7/2281 [0.3%]) and post-marketing experience. Liver failure signs include jaundice, elevated transaminases and/or hyperbilirubinemia in conjunction with encephalopathy, coagulopathy, and/or renal failure. Monitor liver function tests (ALT, AST, bilirubin) before initiation of treatment, during each cycle of treatment, and as clinically indicated. SUTENT should be interrupted for Grade 3 or 4 drugrelated hepatic adverse events and discontinued if there is no resolution. Do not restart SUTENT if patients subsequently experience severe changes in liver function tests or have other signs and symptoms of liver failure.

Safety in patients with ALT or AST > 2.5 x ULN or, if due to liver metastases, > 5.0 x ULN has not been established.

Pregnancy

SUTENT can cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman. As angiogenesis is a critical component of embryonic and fetal development, inhibition of angiogenesis following administration of SUTENT should be expected to result in adverse effects on pregnancy. In animal reproductive studies in rats and rabbits, sunitinib was teratogenic, embryotoxic, and fetotoxic. There are no adequate and well-controlled studies of SUTENT in pregnant women. If this drug is used during pregnancy, or if the patient becomes pregnant while taking this drug, the patient should be apprised of the potential hazard to a fetus. Women of childbearing potential should be advised to avoid becoming pregnant while receiving treatment with SUTENT.

Left Ventricular Dysfunction

In the presence of clinical manifestations of congestive heart failure (CHF), discontinuation of SUTENT is recommended. The dose of SUTENT should be interrupted and/or reduced in patients without clinical evidence of CHF but with an ejection fraction < 50% and > 20% below baseline.

Cardiovascular events, including heart failure, myocardial disorders and cardiomyopathy, some of which were fatal, have been reported through post-marketing experience. For GIST and RCC, more patients treated with SUTENT experienced decline in left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) than patients receiving either placebo or interferon-α (IFN-α). In the double-blind treatment phase of GIST Study A, 22/209 patients (11%) on SUTENT and 3/102 patients (3%) on placebo had treatment-emergent LVEF values below the lower limit of normal (LLN). Nine of 22 GIST patients on SUTENT with LVEF changes recovered without intervention. Five patients had documented LVEF recovery following intervention (dose reduction: one patient; addition of antihypertensive or diuretic medications: four patients). Six patients went off study without documented recovery. Additionally, three patients on SUTENT had Grade 3 reductions in left ventricular systolic function to LVEF < 40%; two of these patients died without receiving further study drug. No GIST patients on placebo had Grade 3 decreased LVEF. In the double-blind treatment phase of GIST Study A, 1 patient on SUTENT and 1 patient on placebo died of diagnosed heart failure; 2 patients on SUTENT and 2 patients on placebo died of treatment-emergent cardiac arrest.

In the treatment-na´ve RCC study, 103/375 (27%) and 54/360 (15%) patients on SUTENT and IFN-α, respectively, had an LVEF value below the LLN. Twenty-six patients on SUTENT (7%) and seven on IFN-α (2%) experienced declines in LVEF to > 20% below baseline and to below 50%. Left ventricular dysfunction was reported in four patients (1%) and CHF in two patients ( < 1%) who received SUTENT.

In the Phase 3 pNET study, cardiac failure leading to death was reported in 2/83 (2%) patients on SUTENT and no patients on placebo.

Patients who presented with cardiac events within 12 months prior to SUTENT administration, such as myocardial infarction (including severe/unstable angina), coronary/peripheral artery bypass graft, symptomatic CHF, cerebrovascular accident or transient ischemic attack, or pulmonary embolism were excluded from SUTENT clinical studies. It is unknown whether patients with these concomitant conditions may be at a higher risk of developing drug-related left ventricular dysfunction. Physicians are advised to weigh this risk against the potential benefits of the drug. These patients should be carefully monitored for clinical signs and symptoms of CHF while receiving SUTENT. Baseline and periodic evaluations of LVEF should also be considered while these patients are receiving SUTENT. In patients without cardiac risk factors, a baseline evaluation of ejection fraction should be considered.

QT Interval Prolongation and Torsade de Pointes

SUTENT has been shown to prolong the QT interval in a dose dependent manner, which may lead to an increased risk for ventricular arrhythmias including Torsade de Pointes. Torsade de Pointes has been observed in < 0.1% of SUTENT-exposed patients.

SUTENT should be used with caution in patients with a history of QT interval prolongation, patients who are taking antiarrhythmics, or patients with relevant pre-existing cardiac disease, bradycardia, or electrolyte disturbances. When using SUTENT, periodic monitoring with on-treatment electrocardiograms and electrolytes (magnesium, potassium) should be considered. Concomitant treatment with strong CYP3A4 inhibitors, which may increase sunitinib plasma concentrations, should be used with caution and dose reduction of SUTENT should be considered [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION].

Hypertension

Patients should be monitored for hypertension and treated as needed with standard anti-hypertensive therapy. In cases of severe hypertension, temporary suspension of SUTENT is recommended until hypertension is controlled.

Of patients receiving SUTENT for treatment-na´ve RCC, 127/375 patients (34%) receiving SUTENT compared with 13/360 patients (4%) on IFN-α experienced hypertension. Grade 3 hypertension was observed in 50/375 treatment-na´ve RCC patients (13%) on SUTENT compared to 1/360 patients ( < 1%) on IFN-α. While all-grade hypertension was similar in GIST patients on SUTENT compared to placebo, Grade 3 hypertension was reported in 9/202 GIST patients on SUTENT (4%), and none of the GIST patients on placebo. Of patients receiving SUTENT in the Phase 3 pNET study, 22/83 patients (27%) on SUTENT and 4/82 patients (5%) on placebo experienced hypertension. Grade 3 hypertension was reported in 8/83 pNET patients (10%) on SUTENT, and 1/82 patient (1%) on placebo. No Grade 4 hypertension was reported. SUTENT dosing was reduced or temporarily delayed for hypertension in 21/375 patients (6%) on the treatment-naive RCC study and 7/83 pNET patients (8%). Four treatment-na´ve RCC patients, including one with malignant hypertension, one patient with pNET, and no GIST patients discontinued treatment due to hypertension. Severe hypertension ( > 200 mmHg systolic or 110 mmHg diastolic) occurred in 8/202 GIST patients on SUTENT (4%), 1/102 GIST patients on placebo (1%), in 32/375 treatment-na´ve RCC patients (9%) on SUTENT, in 3/360 patients (1%) on IFN-α, and in 8/80 pNET patients (10%) on SUTENT and 2/76 pNET patients (3%) on placebo.

Hemorrhagic Events

Hemorrhagic events reported through post-marketing experience, some of which were fatal, have included GI, respiratory, tumor, urinary tract and brain hemorrhages. In patients receiving SUTENT in a clinical trial for treatment-na´ve RCC, 140/375 patients (37%) had bleeding events compared with 35/360 patients (10%) receiving IFN-α. Bleeding events occurred in 37/202 patients (18%) receiving SUTENT in the double-blind treatment phase of GIST Study A, compared to 17/102 patients (17%) receiving placebo. Epistaxis was the most common hemorrhagic adverse event reported. Bleeding events, excluding epistaxis, occurred in 18/83 patients (22%) receiving SUTENT in the Phase 3 pNET study, compared to 8/82 patients (10%) receiving placebo. Epistaxis was reported in 17/83 patients (20%) receiving SUTENT for pNET and 4 patients (5%) receiving placebo. Less common bleeding events in GIST, RCC and pNET patients included rectal, gingival, upper gastrointestinal, genital, and wound bleeding. In the double-blind treatment phase of GIST Study A, 14/202 patients (7%) receiving SUTENT and 9/102 patients (9%) on placebo had Grade 3 or 4 bleeding events. In addition, one patient in GIST Study A taking placebo had a fatal gastrointestinal bleeding event during Cycle 2. Most events in RCC patients were Grade 1 or 2; there was one Grade 5 event of gastric bleed in a treatment-na´ve patient. In the pNET study, 1/83 patients (1%) receiving SUTENT had Grade 3 epistaxis, and no patients had other Grade 3 or 4 bleeding events. In pNET patients receiving placebo, 3/82 patients (4%) had Grade 3 or 4 bleeding events.

Tumor-related hemorrhage has been observed in patients treated with SUTENT. These events may occur suddenly, and in the case of pulmonary tumors may present as severe and life-threatening hemoptysis or pulmonary hemorrhage. Cases of pulmonary hemorrhage, some with a fatal outcome, have been observed in clinical trials and have been reported in post-marketing experience in patients treated with SUTENT for MRCC, GIST and metastatic lung cancer. SUTENT is not approved for use in patients with lung cancer. Treatmentemergent Grade 3 and 4 tumor hemorrhage occurred in 5/202 patients (3%) with GIST receiving SUTENT on Study A. Tumor hemorrhages were observed as early as Cycle 1 and as late as Cycle 6. One of these five patients received no further drug following tumor hemorrhage. None of the other four patients discontinued treatment or experienced dose delay due to tumor hemorrhage. No patients with GIST in the Study A placebo arm were observed to undergo intratumoral hemorrhage. Clinical assessment of these events should include serial complete blood counts (CBCs) and physical examinations.

Serious, sometimes fatal gastrointestinal complications including gastrointestinal perforation, have occurred rarely in patients with intra-abdominal malignancies treated with SUTENT.

Osteonecrosis of the Jaw (ONJ)

ONJ has been observed in clinical trials and has been reported in post-marketing experience in patients treated with sunitinib. Concomitant exposure to other risk factors, such as bisphosphonates or dental disease, may increase the risk of osteonecrosis of the jaw.

Tumor Lysis Syndrome (TLS)

Cases of TLS, some fatal, have been observed in clinical trials and have been reported in post-marketing experience, primarily in patients with RCC or GIST treated with SUTENT. Patients generally at risk of TLS are those with high tumor burden prior to treatment. These patients should be monitored closely and treated as clinically indicated.

Thyroid Dysfunction

Baseline laboratory measurement of thyroid function is recommended and patients with hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism should be treated as per standard medical practice prior to the start of SUTENT treatment. All patients should be observed closely for signs and symptoms of thyroid dysfunction, including hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism, and thyroiditis, on SUTENT treatment. Patients with signs and/or symptoms suggestive of thyroid dysfunction should have laboratory monitoring of thyroid function performed and be treated as per standard medical practice.

Treatment-emergent acquired hypothyroidism was noted in eight GIST patients (4%) on SUTENT versus one (1%) on placebo. Hypothyroidism was reported as an adverse reaction in sixty-one patients (16%) on SUTENT in the treatment-na´ve RCC study and in three patients (1%) in the IFN-α arm. Hypothyroidism was reported as an adverse reaction in 6/83 patients (7%) on SUTENT in the Phase 3 pNET study and in 1/82 patients (1%) in the placebo arm.

Cases of hyperthyroidism, some followed by hypothyroidism, have been reported in clinical trials and through post-marketing experience.

Wound Healing

Cases of impaired wound healing have been reported during SUTENT therapy. Temporary interruption of SUTENT therapy is recommended for precautionary reasons in patients undergoing major surgical procedures. There is limited clinical experience regarding the timing of reinitiation of therapy following major surgical intervention. Therefore, the decision to resume SUTENT therapy following a major surgical intervention should be based upon clinical judgment of recovery from surgery.

Adrenal Function

Physicians prescribing SUTENT are advised to monitor for adrenal insufficiency in patients who experience stress such as surgery, trauma or severe infection.

Adrenal toxicity was noted in non-clinical repeat dose studies of 14 days to 9 months in rats and monkeys at plasma exposures as low as 0.7 times the AUC observed in clinical studies. Histological changes of the adrenal gland were characterized as hemorrhage, necrosis, congestion, hypertrophy and inflammation. In clinical studies, CT/MRI obtained in 336 patients after exposure to one or more cycles of SUTENT demonstrated no evidence of adrenal hemorrhage or necrosis. ACTH stimulation testing was performed in approximately 400 patients across multiple clinical trials of SUTENT. Among patients with normal baseline ACTH stimulation testing, one patient developed consistently abnormal test results during treatment that are unexplained and may be related to treatment with SUTENT. Eleven additional patients with normal baseline testing had abnormalities in the final test performed, with peak cortisol levels of 12-16.4 mcg/dL (normal > 18 mcg/dL) following stimulation. None of these patients were reported to have clinical evidence of adrenal insufficiency.

Laboratory Tests

CBCs with platelet count and serum chemistries including phosphate should be performed at the beginning of each treatment cycle for patients receiving treatment with SUTENT.

Patient Counseling Information

See FDA-Approved Patient Labeling.

Gastrointestinal Disorders

Gastrointestinal disorders such as diarrhea, nausea, stomatitis, dyspepsia, and vomiting were the most commonly reported gastrointestinal events occurring in patients who received SUTENT. Supportive care for gastrointestinal adverse events requiring treatment may include anti-emetic or anti-diarrheal medication.

Skin Effects

Skin discoloration possibly due to the drug color (yellow) occurred in approximately one third of patients. Patients should be advised that depigmentation of the hair or skin may occur during treatment with SUTENT. Other possible dermatologic effects may include dryness, thickness or cracking of skin, blister or rash on the palms of the hands and soles of the feet.

Other Common Events

Other commonly reported adverse events included fatigue, high blood pressure, bleeding, swelling, mouth pain/irritation and taste disturbance.

Musculoskeletal Disorders

Prior to treatment with SUTENT, a dental examination and appropriate preventive dentistry should be considered. In patients being treated with SUTENT, who have previously received or are receiving bisphosphonates, invasive dental procedures should be avoided, if possible.

Concomitant Medications

Patients should be advised to inform their health care providers of all concomitant medications, including over-the-counter medications and dietary supplements [see DRUG INTERACTIONS].

Nonclinical Toxicology

Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility

The carcinogenic potential of sunitinib has been evaluated in two species: rasH2 transgenic mice and Sprague-Dawley rats. There were similar positive findings in both species. In rasH2 transgenic mice gastroduodenal carcinomas and/or gastric mucosal hyperplasia, as well as an increased incidence of background hemangiosarcomas were observed at doses of ≥ 25 mg/kg/day following daily dose administration of sunitinib in studies of 1 or 6 months duration. No proliferative changes were observed in rasH2 transgenic mice at 8 mg/kg/day. Similarly, in a 2-year rat carcinogenicity study, administration of sunitinib in 28-day cycles followed by 7-day dose-free periods resulted in findings of duodenal carcinoma at doses as low as 1 mg/kg/day (approximately 0.9 times the AUC in patients given the RDD of 50 mg/day).At the high dose of 3 mg/kg/day (approximately 7.8 times the AUC in patients at the RDD of 50 mg/day) the incidence of duodenal tumors was increased and was accompanied by findings of gastric mucous cell hyperplasia and by an increased incidence of pheochromocytoma and hyperplasia of the adrenal. Sunitinib did not cause genetic damage when tested in in vitro assays (bacterial mutation [AMES Assay], human lymphocyte chromosome aberration) and an in vivo rat bone marrow micronucleus test.

Effects on the female reproductive system were identified in a 3-month repeat dose monkey study (2, 6, 12 mg/kg/day), where ovarian changes (decreased follicular development) were noted at 12 mg/kg/day ( ≥ 5.1 times the AUC in patients administered the RDD), while uterine changes (endometrial atrophy) were noted at ≥ 2 mg/kg/day ( ≥ 0.4 times the AUC in patients administered the RDD). With the addition of vaginal atrophy, the uterine and ovarian effects were reproduced at 6 mg/kg/day in the 9-month monkey study (0.3, 1.5 and 6 mg/kg/day administered daily for 28 days followed by a 14 day respite; the 6 mg/kg dose produced a mean AUC that was ≥ 0.8 times the AUC in patients administered the RDD). A no effect level was not identified in the 3 month study; 1.5 mg/kg/day represents a no effect level in monkeys administered sunitinib for 9 months.

Although fertility was not affected in rats, SUTENT may impair fertility in humans. In female rats, no fertility effects were observed at doses of ≤ 5.0 mg/kg/day [(0.5, 1.5, 5.0 mg/kg/day) administered for 21 days up to gestational day 7; the 5.0 mg/kg dose produced an AUC that was ≥ 5 times the AUC in patients administered the RDD], however significant embryolethality was observed at the 5.0 mg/kg dose. No reproductive effects were observed in male rats dosed (1, 3 or 10 mg/kg/day) for 58 days prior to mating with untreated females. Fertility, copulation, conception indices, and sperm evaluation (morphology, concentration, and motility) were unaffected by sunitinib at doses ≤ 10 mg/kg/day (the 10 mg/kg/day dose produced a mean AUC that was ≥ 25.8 times the AUC in patients administered the RDD).

Use In Specific Populations

Pregnancy

Pregnancy Category D

[see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].

SUTENT can cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman. As angiogenesis is a critical component of embryonic and fetal development, inhibition of angiogenesis following administration of SUTENT should be expected to result in adverse effects on pregnancy. In animal reproductive studies in rats and rabbits, sunitinib was teratogenic, embryotoxic, and fetotoxic. There are no adequate and well-controlled studies of SUTENT in pregnant women. If this drug is used during pregnancy, or if the patient becomes pregnant while taking this drug, the patient should be apprised of the potential hazard to a fetus. Women of childbearing potential should be advised to avoid becoming pregnant while receiving treatment with SUTENT.

Sunitinib was evaluated in pregnant rats (0.3, 1.5, 3.0, 5.0 mg/kg/day) and rabbits (0.5, 1, 5, 20 mg/kg/day) for effects on the embryo. Significant increases in the incidence of embryolethality and structural abnormalities were observed in rats at the dose of 5 mg/kg/day (approximately 5.5 times the systemic exposure [combined AUC of sunitinib + primary active metabolite] in patients administered the recommended daily doses [RDD]). Significantly increased embryolethality was observed in rabbits at 5 mg/kg/day while developmental effects were observed at ≥ 1 mg/kg/day (approximately 0.3 times the AUC in patients administered the RDD of 50 mg/day). Developmental effects consisted of fetal skeletal malformations of the ribs and vertebrae in rats. In rabbits, cleft lip was observed at 1 mg/kg/day and cleft lip and cleft palate were observed at 5 mg/kg/day (approximately 2.7 times the AUC in patients administered the RDD). Neither fetal loss nor malformations were observed in rats dosed at ≤ 3 mg/kg/day (approximately 2.3 times the AUC in patients administered the RDD).

Sunitinib (0.3, 1.0, 3.0 mg/kg/day) was evaluated in a pre- and postnatal development study in pregnant rats. Maternal body weight gains were reduced during gestation and lactation at doses ≥ 1 mg/kg/day but no maternal reproductive toxicity was observed at doses up to 3 mg/kg/day (approximately 2.3 times the AUC in patients administered the RDD). At the high dose of 3 mg/kg/day, reduced body weights were observed at birth and persisted for offspring of both sexes during the pre-weaning period and in males during post-weaning period. No other developmental toxicity was observed at doses up to 3 mg/kg/day (approximately 2.3 times the AUC in patients administered the RDD).

Nursing Mothers

Sunitinib and its metabolites are excreted in rat milk. In lactating female rats administered 15 mg/kg, sunitinib and its metabolites were extensively excreted in milk at concentrations up to 12-fold higher than in plasma. It is not known whether this drug or its primary active metabolite are excreted in human milk. Because many drugs are excreted in human milk and because of the potential for serious adverse reactions in nursing infants from SUTENT, a decision should be made whether to discontinue nursing or to discontinue the drug taking into account the importance of the drug to the mother.

Pediatric Use

The safety and efficacy of SUTENT in pediatric patients have not been established.

Physeal dysplasia was observed in cynomolgus monkeys with open growth plates treated for ≥ 3 months (3 month dosing 2, 6, 12 mg/kg/day; 8 cycles of dosing 0.3, 1.5, 6.0 mg/kg/day) with sunitinib at doses that were > 0.4 times the RDD based on systemic exposure (AUC). In developing rats treated continuously for 3 months (1.5, 5.0 and 15.0 mg/kg) or 5 cycles (0.3, 1.5, and 6.0 mg/kg/day), bone abnormalities consisted of thickening of the epiphyseal cartilage of the femur and an increase of fracture of the tibia at doses ≥ 5 mg/kg (approximately 10 times the RDD based on AUC). Additionally, caries of the teeth were observed in rats at > 5 mg/kg. The incidence and severity of physeal dysplasia were dose-related and were reversible upon cessation of treatment; however, findings in the teeth were not. A no effect level was not observed in monkeys treated continuously for 3 months, but was 1.5 mg/kg/day when treated intermittently for 8 cycles. In rats the no effect level in bones was ≤ 2 mg/kg/day.

Geriatric Use

Of 825 GIST and RCC patients who received SUTENT on clinical studies, 277 (34%) were 65 and over. In the Phase 3 pNET study, 22 (27%) patients who received SUTENT were 65 and over. No overall differences in safety or effectiveness were observed between younger and older patients.

Hepatic Impairment

No dose adjustment to the starting dose is required when administering SUTENT to patients with Child-Pugh Class A or B hepatic impairment. Sunitinib and its primary metabolite are primarily metabolized by the liver. Systemic exposures after a single dose of SUTENT were similar in subjects with mild or moderate (Child-Pugh Class A and B) hepatic impairment compared to subjects with normal hepatic function. SUTENT was not studied in subjects with severe (Child-Pugh Class C) hepatic impairment. Studies in cancer patients have excluded patients with ALT or AST > 2.5 x ULN or, if due to liver metastases, > 5.0 x ULN.

Renal Impairment

No adjustment to the starting dose is required when administering SUTENT to patients with mild, moderate, and severe renal impairment. Subsequent dose modifications should be based on safety and tolerability [see Dose Modification]. In patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) on hemodialysis, no adjustment to the starting dose is required. However, compared to subjects with normal renal function, the sunitinib exposure is 47% lower in subjects with ESRD on hemodialysis. Therefore, the subsequent doses may be increased gradually up to 2 fold based on safety and tolerability.

Last reviewed on RxList: 10/7/2013
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

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