Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD
Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD, is a U.S. board-certified Anatomic Pathologist with subspecialty training in the fields of Experimental and Molecular Pathology. Dr. Stöppler's educational background includes a BA with Highest Distinction from the University of Virginia and an MD from the University of North Carolina. She completed residency training in Anatomic Pathology at Georgetown University followed by subspecialty fellowship training in molecular diagnostics and experimental pathology.
In this Article
- What is dysphagia?
- What causes dysphagia?
- Physical obstruction of the pharynx or esophagus
- Diseases of the brain
- Diseases of the smooth muscle of the esophagus
- Diseases of the skeletal muscle of the pharynx
- Miscellaneous diseases
- What are the symptoms of dysphagia?
- Swallowing related symptoms
- Non-swallowing related symptoms
- What is the differential diagnosis for dysphagia?
- How is dysphagia evaluated and the cause diagnosed?
- How is dysphagia treated?
- What is the prognosis for dysphagia?
- What does the future offer for dysphagia?
- Dysphagia At A Glance
- Find a local Gastroenterologist in your town
What is the prognosis for dysphagia?
With the exception of dysphagia caused by strokes for which there can be marked improvement, dysphagia from other causes is stable or progressive, and the prognosis depends on the underlying cause, its tendency to progress, the availability of therapy, and the response to therapy.
- In general, the prognosis
for non-malignant obstruction of the esophagus is good with treatment. Even
dysphagia caused by malignant obstruction can be palliated with endoscopic
resection of part of the tumor and/or stenting.
- Neurologic and muscular diseases
causing dysphagia are a mixed bag.
- Treatment of achalasia is quite effective,
treatment for spastic motility disorders much less so.
- As mentioned previously,
ineffective peristalsis by itself usually does not cause important or
- Progressive neurologic and skeletal muscle diseases are the most difficult to treat and carry the worst prognosis.
What does the future offer for dysphagia?
Recent developments in the diagnostic arena are beginning to bring new insights into esophageal function, specifically, high resolution and 3D manometry, and endoscopic ultrasound.
High resolution and 3D manometry
High resolution and 3D manometry are extensions of standard manometry that utilize similar catheters. The difference is that the pressure-sensing locations on the catheters are very close together and ring the catheter. Recording of pressures from so many locations gives an extremely detailed picture of how esophageal muscle is contracting. The primary value of these diagnostic procedures is that they "integrate" the activities of the esophagus so that the overall pattern of swallowing can be recognized, which is particularly important in complex motility disorders. In addition, their added detail allows the recognition of subtle abnormalities and hopefully will be able to help define the clinical importance of subtle abnormalities of muscle contraction associated with lesser degrees of dysphagia.
Endoscopic ultrasonography has been available for many years but has recently been applied to the evaluation of esophageal muscle diseases. Ultrasound uses sound waves to penetrate tissues. The sound waves are reflected by the tissues and structures they encounter, and, when analyzed, the reflections give information about the tissues and structures from which they are reflected. In the esophagus, endoscopic ultrasonography has been used to determine the extent of penetration of tumors into the esophageal wall and the presence of metastases to adjacent lymph nodes. More recently, endoscopic ultrasonography has been used to obtain a detailed look at the muscles of the esophagus. What has been found is that in some disorders, particularly the spastic motility disorders, the muscle of the esophagus is thickened. Moreover, thickening of the muscle sometimes can be recognized only by ultrasonography even when spastic abnormalities are not seen with manometry. The exact role of endoscopic ultrasonography has not yet been determined but is an exciting area for future research.
Next: Dysphagia At A Glance
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