Swollen Ankles and Swollen Feet (cont.)
Charles Patrick Davis, MD, PhD
Dr. Charles "Pat" Davis, MD, PhD, is a board certified Emergency Medicine doctor who currently practices as a consultant and staff member for hospitals. He has a PhD in Microbiology (UT at Austin), and the MD (Univ. Texas Medical Branch, Galveston). He is a Clinical Professor (retired) in the Division of Emergency Medicine, UT Health Science Center at San Antonio, and has been the Chief of Emergency Medicine at UT Medical Branch and at UTHSCSA with over 250 publications.
Jerry R. Balentine, DO, FACEP
Dr. Balentine received his undergraduate degree from McDaniel College in Westminster, Maryland. He attended medical school at the Philadelphia College of Osteopathic Medicine graduating in1983. He completed his internship at St. Joseph's Hospital in Philadelphia and his Emergency Medicine residency at Lincoln Medical and Mental Health Center in the Bronx, where he served as chief resident.
In this Article
- Swollen ankles and swollen feet facts
- What causes swollen ankles and swollen feet?
- Who is at risk for swollen ankles and swollen feet?
- What are the symptoms of swollen ankles and swollen feet?
- How are swollen ankles and swollen feet diagnosed?
- What is the treatment for swollen feet and swollen ankles?
- What are the complications of swollen ankles and swollen feet?
- Can swollen ankles and swollen feet be prevented?
- What is the prognosis (outcome) for swollen feet and swollen ankles?
- Find a local Doctor in your town
Who is at risk for swollen ankles and swollen feet?
A large number of people are at risk for swollen ankles and feet . Below are listed the causes and those people at risk:
- Dependent swelling (or edema): people who are standing or walking for extended periods like salespersons, mothers with children, construction workers,obese individuals, and individuals with underlying health problems (see below)
- Pregnancy: most normal pregnant females, especially in the last trimester.
- Medications (side effects): people taking anti-inflammatory drugs (steroids and NSAIDs), hormones, medications for people with diabetes, antidepressants, and many calcium channel blockers (anti-hypertensive and cardiac medications).
- Injury: any person with trauma to the foot or ankle
- Diseases: Patients with heart disease (especially congestive heart failure), liver disease, kidney disease (all of these diseases can influence fluid mobilization in the body by physical, metabolic and electrolyte-water interactions)
- Infection: any person infected, either localized (abscess) or diffuse (cellulitis)of the foot or ankle
- Lymphedema: Persons with lymph vessel or lymph node blockage of lymph fluid, due to infections, trauma or surgical procedures
- Blood clot(s): People with blockage of blood vessels (usually venous) that cause fluid to leak out of vessels into tissue
There are other causes that are less frequent and intermittent (for example gout or hairline ankle fractures).
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