"The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved another atypical antipsychotic for the treatment of pediatric patients with bipolar I disorder.
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During premarketing clinical studies of olanzapine and fluoxetine in combination, overdose of both fluoxetine and olanzapine were reported in 5 study subjects. Four of the 5 subjects experienced loss of consciousness (3) or coma (1). No fatalities occurred.
Adverse reactions involving overdose of fluoxetine and olanzapine in combination, and SYMBYAX, have been reported spontaneously to Eli Lilly and Company. An overdose of combination therapy is defined as confirmed or suspected ingestion of a dose of > 20 mg olanzapine in combination with a dose of > 80 mg fluoxetine. Adverse reactions associated with these reports included somnolence (sedation), impaired consciousness (coma), impaired neurologic function (ataxia, confusion, convulsions, dysarthria), arrhythmias, lethargy, essential tremor, agitation, acute psychosis, hypotension, hypertension, and aggression. Fatalities have been confounded by exposure to additional substances including alcohol, thioridazine, oxycodone, and propoxyphene.
In postmarketing reports of overdose with olanzapine alone, symptoms have been reported in the majority of cases. In symptomatic patients, symptoms with ≥ 10% incidence included agitation/aggressiveness, dysarthria, tachycardia, various extrapyramidal symptoms, and reduced level of consciousness ranging from sedation to coma.
Among less commonly reported symptoms were the following potentially medically serious reactions: aspiration, cardiopulmonary arrest, cardiac arrhythmias (such as supraventricular tachycardia as well as a patient that experienced sinus pause with spontaneous resumption of normal rhythm), delirium, possible neuroleptic malignant syndrome, respiratory depression/arrest, convulsion, hypertension, and hypotension. Eli Lilly and Company has received reports of fatality in association with overdose of olanzapine alone. In 1 case of death, the amount of acutely ingested olanzapine was reported to be possibly as low as 450 mg of oral olanzapine; however, in another case, a patient was reported to survive an acute olanzapine ingestion of approximately 2 g of oral olanzapine.
Worldwide exposure to fluoxetine is estimated to be over 38 million patients (circa 1999). Of the 1578 cases of overdose involving fluoxetine, alone or with other drugs, reported from this population, there were 195 deaths.
Among 633 adult patients who overdosed on fluoxetine alone, 34 resulted in a fatal outcome, 378 completely recovered, and 15 patients experienced sequelae after overdose, including abnormal accommodation, abnormal gait, confusion, unresponsiveness, nervousness, pulmonary dysfunction, vertigo, tremor, elevated blood pressure, erectile dysfunction, movement disorder, and hypomania. The remaining 206 patients had an unknown outcome. The most common signs and symptoms associated with non-fatal overdose were seizures, somnolence, nausea, tachycardia, and vomiting. The largest known ingestion of fluoxetine in adult patients was 8 grams in a patient who took fluoxetine alone and who subsequently recovered. However, in an adult patient who took fluoxetine alone, an ingestion as low as 520 mg has been associated with lethal outcome, but causality has not been established.
Among pediatric patients (ages 3 months to 17 years), there were 156 cases of overdose involving fluoxetine alone or in combination with other drugs. Six patients died, 127 patients completely recovered, 1 patient experienced renal failure, and 22 patients had an unknown outcome. One of the 6 fatalities was a 9-year-old boy who had a history of OCD, Tourette's Syndrome with tics, attention deficit disorder, and fetal alcohol syndrome. He had been receiving 100 mg of fluoxetine daily for 6 months in addition to clonidine, methylphenidate, and promethazine. Mixed-drug ingestion or other methods of suicide complicated all 6 overdoses in children that resulted in fatalities. The largest ingestion in pediatric patients was 3 grams, which was non-lethal.
Other important adverse reactions reported with fluoxetine overdose (single or multiple drugs) included coma, delirium, ECG abnormalities (such as nodal rhythm, QT-interval prolongation and ventricular arrhythmias, including torsades de pointes-type arrhythmias), hypotension, mania, neuroleptic malignant syndrome-like reactions, pyrexia, stupor, and syncope.
Management of Overdose
For current information on the management of SYMBYAX (olanzapine and fluoxetine) overdose, contact a certified poison control center (1-800-222-1222 or www.poison.org). In managing overdose, consider the possibility of multiple drug involvement. In case of acute overdose, establish and maintain an airway and ensure adequate ventilation, which may include intubation. Induction of emesis is not recommended as the possibility of obtundation, seizures, or dystonic reactions of the head and neck following overdose may create a risk for aspiration. Commence cardiovascular monitoring immediately and include continuous electrocardiographic monitoring to detect possible arrhythmias.
A specific precaution involves patients who are taking or have recently taken SYMBYAX and may have ingested excessive quantities of a TCA (tricyclic antidepressant). In such cases, accumulation of the parent TCA and/or an active metabolite increases the possibility of serious sequelae and extends the time needed for close medical observation.
Due to the large volume of distribution of olanzapine and fluoxetine, forced diuresis, dialysis, hemoperfusion, and exchange transfusion are unlikely to be of benefit. No specific antidote for either fluoxetine or olanzapine overdose is known. Treat hypotension and circulatory collapse with appropriate measures such as intravenous fluids and/or sympathomimetic agents. Do not use epinephrine, dopamine, or other sympathomimetics with β-agonist activity, since beta stimulation may worsen hypotension in the setting of olanzapine-induced alpha blockade.
Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors (MAOIs)
The use of MAOIs intended to treat psychiatric disorders with SYMBYAX or within 5 weeks of stopping treatment with SYMBYAX is contraindicated because of an increased risk of serotonin syndrome. The use of SYMBYAX within 14 days of stopping an MAOI intended to treat psychiatric disorders is also contraindicated [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION and WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
Starting SYMBYAX in a patient who is being treated with MAOIs such as linezolid or intravenous methylene blue is also contraindicated because of an increased risk of serotonin syndrome. [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION and WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
- Pimozide [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS and DRUG INTERACTIONS]
- Thioridazine [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS and DRUG INTERACTIONS] Pimozide and thioridazine prolong the QT interval. SYMBYAX can increase the levels of pimozide and thioridazine through inhibition of CYP2D6. SYMBYAX can also prolong the QT interval.
Last reviewed on RxList: 8/7/2013
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.
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