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Clinical Studies Experience
Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in clinical practice.
Three different formulations were studied during clinical development of SYNERA: Developmental A (n=138), Developmental B (n=30), and the SYNERA final formulation (n=1281). The developmental patch formulations each contained the same amount of the active drug (70 mg each of lidocaine and tetracaine) as the final patch formulation, but varying amounts of excipients, principally polyvinyl alcohol and water. Data obtained from studies utilizing the developmental patches have been included in the overall evaluation of SYNERA safety (calculation of adverse event incidence).
Most common adverse events in clinical trials
During or immediately after treatment with SYNERA, the skin at the site of treatment may develop erythema, blanching, edema, or abnormal sensation. In clinical studies involving 1449 SYNERA-treated subjects, the most common local reactions were erythema (71%), blanching (12%) and edema (12%). These reactions were generally mild, resolving spontaneously soon after patch removal. There were no treatment-related serious adverse events.
Other application site reactions of various types (contact dermatitis, rash, skin discoloration) occurred in less than 4% of SYNERA-treated patients during clinical trials. Of these adverse events, 75% were mild, resolving spontaneously soon after patch removal.
Application site-related adverse events that occurred in 1% or less of SYNERA-treated subjects included rash, pruritus, pain, contact dermatitis, infection, skin discoloration, allergic reaction, blister, paresthesia, urticaria, and vesiculobullous rash.
Allergic or anaphylactoid reactions can occur with the active or inactive components of SYNERA. They may be characterized by urticaria, angioedema, bronchospasm, and shock. Allergic reactions to the patch should be managed by conventional means.
Systemic (Dose-Related) Reactions
Systemic adverse reactions that occurred in 1% or less of SYNERA-treated subjects included dizziness, headache, nausea, somnolence, and vomiting. Systemic adverse effects of lidocaine and tetracaine are similar in nature to those observed with other amide and ester local anesthetic agents, including CNS excitation and/or depression (light-headedness, nervousness, apprehension, euphoria, confusion, dizziness, drowsiness, tinnitus, blurred or double vision, vomiting, sensations of heat, cold or numbness, twitching, tremors, convulsions, unconsciousness, respiratory depression and arrest). Excitatory CNS reactions may be brief or not occur at all, in which case the first manifestation may be drowsiness merging into unconsciousness. Signs of CNS toxicity may start at plasma concentrations of lidocaine as low as 1000 ng/mL. The plasma concentrations at which tetracaine toxicity may occur are less well characterized; however, systemic toxicity with tetracaine is thought to occur with much lower plasma concentrations compared with lidocaine. The toxicity of co-administered local anesthetics is thought to be at least additive. Cardiovascular manifestations may include bradycardia, hypotension and cardiovascular collapse leading to arrest.
Read the Synera (lidocaine and tetracaine) Side Effects Center for a complete guide to possible side effects
SYNERA should be used with caution in patients receiving Class I antiarrhythmic drugs (such as tocainide and mexiletine) since the systemic toxic effects are thought to be additive and potentially synergistic with lidocaine and tetracaine.
When SYNERA is used concomitantly with other products containing local anesthetic agents, the amount absorbed from all formulations should be considered since the systemic toxic effects are thought to be additive and potentially synergistic with lidocaine and tetracaine.
Read the Synera Drug Interactions Center for a complete guide to possible interactions
Last reviewed on RxList: 3/28/2014
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.
Additional Synera Information
- Synera Drug Interactions Center: lidocaine-tetracaine top
- Synera Side Effects Center
- Synera FDA Approved Prescribing Information including Dosage
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