"The the European Medicines Agency's (EMA's) Pharmacovigilance Risk Assessment Committee (PRAC) will review the risks and benefits of modified- and prolonged-release paracetamol (acetaminophen) tablets, the agency said today.
Pentazocine is a Schedule IV opioid analgesic which when administered orally in a 50 mg dose appears equivalent in analgesic effect to 60 mg of codeine.
Pentazocine weakly antagonizes the analgesic effects of morphine and meperidine; in addition, it produces incomplete reversal of cardiovascular, respiratory, and behavioral depression induced by morphine and meperidine. Pentazocine has about 1/50 the antagonistic activity of nalorphine. It also has sedative activity.
Onset of significant analgesia usually occurs between 15 and 30 minutes after oral administration, and duration of action is usually three hours or longer.
Pentazocine is well absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract. Concentrations in plasma coincide closely with the onset, duration, and intensity of analgesia. The time to mean peak concentration in 24 normal volunteers was 1.7 hours (range 0.5 to 4 hours) after oral administration and the mean plasma elimination half-life was 3.6 hours (range 1.5 to 10 hours).
Pentazocine is metabolized in the liver and excreted primarily in the urine. The products of the oxidation of the terminal methyl groups and glucuronide conjugates are excreted by the kidney. Elimination of approximately 60% of the total dose occurs within 24 hours. Pentazocine passes into the fetal circulation.
Naloxone when administered orally at 0.5 mg has no pharmacologic activity. Naloxone hydrochloride administered parenterally at the same dose is an antagonist to pentazocine and a pure antagonist to narcotic analgesics.
TALWIN NX (pentazocine and naloxone) is a potent analgesic when administered orally. However, the presence of naloxone in TALWIN NX (pentazocine and naloxone) is intended to prevent the effect of pentazocine if the product is misused by injection.
Studies in animals indicate that the presence of naloxone does not affect pentazocine analgesia when the combination is given orally. If the combination is given by injection the action of pentazocine is neutralized.
Last reviewed on RxList: 4/13/2011
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.
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