"Every year as many as 10 million U.S. children risk side effects from antibiotic prescriptions that are unlikely to help their upper respiratory conditions. Many of these infections are caused by viruses, which are not helped by antibiotics."...
Serious and occasionally fatal hypersensitivity (anaphylactic) reactions and serious skin reactions have been reported in patients receiving beta-lactam antibacterials. Before therapy with Teflaro is instituted, careful inquiry about previous hypersensitivity reactions to other cephalosporins, penicillins, or carbapenems should be made. If this product is to be given to a penicillin- or other beta-lactam-allergic patient, caution should be exercised because cross sensitivity among beta-lactam antibacterial agents has been clearly established.
If an allergic reaction to Teflaro occurs, the drug should be discontinued. Serious acute hypersensitivity (anaphylactic) reactions require emergency treatment with epinephrine and other emergency measures, that may include airway management, oxygen, intravenous fluids, antihistamines, corticosteroids, and vasopressors as clinically indicated.
Clostridium difficile-associated Diarrhea
Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea (CDAD) has been reported for nearly all systemic antibacterial agents, including Teflaro, and may range in severity from mild diarrhea to fatal colitis.
C. difficile produces toxins A and B which contribute to the development of CDAD. Hypertoxin-producing strains of C. difficile cause increased morbidity and mortality, as these infections can be refractory to antimicrobial therapy and may require colectomy. CDAD must be considered in all patients who present with diarrhea following antibiotic use. Careful medical history is necessary because CDAD has been reported to occur more than 2 months after the administration of antibacterial agents.
If CDAD is suspected or confirmed, antibacterials not directed against C. difficile should be discontinued, if possible. Appropriate fluid and electrolyte management, protein supplementation, antibiotic treatment of C. difficile, and surgical evaluation should be instituted as clinically indicated [see ADVERSE REACTIONS].
Direct Coombs' Test Seroconversion
Seroconversion from a negative to a positive direct Coombs' test result occurred in 120/1114 (10.8%) of patients receiving Teflaro and 49/1116 (4.4%) of patients receiving comparator drugs in the four pooled Phase 3 trials.
In the pooled Phase 3 CABP trials, 51/520 (9.8%) of Teflaro-treated patients compared to 24/534 (4.5%) of ceftriaxone-treated patients seroconverted from a negative to a positive direct Coombs' test result. No adverse reactions representing hemolytic anemia were reported in any treatment group.
If anemia develops during or after treatment with Teflaro, drug-induced hemolytic anemia should be considered. Diagnostic studies including a direct Coombs' test, should be performed. If drug-induced hemolytic anemia is suspected, discontinuation of Teflaro should be considered and supportive care should be administered to the patient (i.e. transfusion) if clinically indicated.
Development of Drug-Resistant Bacteria
Prescribing Teflaro in the absence of a proven or strongly suspected bacterial infection is unlikely to provide benefit to the patient and increases the risk of the development of drug-resistant bacteria.
Use In Specific Populations
Developmental toxicity studies performed with ceftaroline fosamil in rats at IV doses up to 300 mg/kg demonstrated no maternal toxicity and no effects on the fetus. A separate toxicokinetic study showed that ceftaroline exposure in rats (based on AUC) at this dose level was approximately 8 times the exposure in humans given 600 mg every 12 hours. There were no drug-induced malformations in the offspring of rabbits given IV doses of 25, 50, and 100 mg/kg, despite maternal toxicity. Signs of maternal toxicity appeared secondary to the sensitivity of the rabbit gastrointestinal system to broad-spectrum antibacterials and included changes in fecal output in all groups and dose-related reductions in body weight gain and food consumption at > 50 mg/kg; these were associated with an increase in spontaneous abortion at 50 and 100 mg/kg. The highest dose was also associated with maternal moribundity and mortality. An increased incidence of a common rabbit skeletal variation, angulated hyoid alae, was also observed at the maternally toxic doses of 50 and 100 mg/kg. A separate toxicokinetic study showed that ceftaroline exposure in rabbits (based on AUC) was approximately 0.8 times the exposure in humans given 600 mg every 12 hours at 25 mg/kg and 1.5 times the human exposure at 50 mg/kg.
Ceftaroline fosamil did not affect the postnatal development or reproductive performance of the offspring of rats given IV doses up to 450 mg/kg/day. Results from a toxicokinetic study conducted in pregnant rats with doses up to 300 mg/kg suggest that exposure was ≥ 8 times the exposure in humans given 600 mg every 12 hours.
There are no adequate and well-controlled trials in pregnant women. Teflaro should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus.
It is not known whether ceftaroline is excreted in human milk. Because many drugs are excreted in human milk, caution should be exercised when Teflaro is administered to a nursing woman.
Safety and effectiveness in pediatric patients have not been established.
Of the 1300 patients treated with Teflaro in the Phase 3 ABSSSI and CABP trials, 397 (30.5%) were ≥ 65 years of age. The clinical cure rates in the Teflaro group (Clinically Evaluable [CE] Population) were similar in patients ≥ 65 years of age compared with patients < 65 years of age in both the ABSSSI and CABP trials.
The adverse event profiles in patients ≥ 65 years of age and in patients < 65 years of age were similar. The percentage of patients in the Teflaro group who had at least one adverse event was 52.4% in patients ≥ 65 years of age and 42.8% in patients < 65 years of age for the two indications combined.
Ceftaroline is excreted primarily by the kidney, and the risk of adverse reactions may be greater in patients with impaired renal function. Because elderly patients are more likely to have decreased renal function, care should be taken in dose selection in this age group and it may be useful to monitor renal function. Elderly subjects had greater ceftaroline exposure relative to non-elderly subjects when administered the same single dose of Teflaro. However, higher exposure in elderly subjects was mainly attributed to age-related changes in renal function. Dosage adjustment for elderly patients should be based on renal function [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION and CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY].
Patients with Renal Impairment
Dosage adjustment is required in patients with moderate (CrCl > 30 to ≤ 50 mL/min) or severe (CrCl ≥ 15 to ≤ 30 mL/min) renal impairment and in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD – defined as CrCl < 15 mL/min), including patients on hemodialysis (HD) [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION and CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY].
Last reviewed on RxList: 6/17/2013
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.
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