"Dec. 18, 2012 -- People who can't get their high blood pressure down with drugs may be helped by a new procedure that deactivates overactive nerves in the kidneys, a small study shows.
The procedure is already available in Europe and "...
Tekturna HCT is indicated for the treatment of hypertension, to lower blood pressure. Lowering blood pressure reduces the risk of fatal and nonfatal cardiovascular events, primarily strokes and myocardial infarctions. These benefits have been seen in controlled trials of antihypertensive drugs from a wide variety of pharmacologic classes including hydrochlorothiazide. There are no controlled trials demonstrating risk reduction with Tekturna HCT.
Control of high blood pressure should be part of comprehensive cardiovascular risk management, including, as appropriate, lipid control, diabetes management, antithrombotic therapy, smoking cessation, exercise, and limited sodium intake. Many patients will require more than one drug to achieve blood pressure goals. For specific advice on goals and management, see published guidelines, such as those of the National High Blood Pressure Education Program's Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure (JNC).
Numerous antihypertensive drugs, from a variety of pharmacologic classes and with different mechanisms of action, have been shown in randomized controlled trials to reduce cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, and it can be concluded that it is blood pressure reduction, and not some other pharmacologic property of the drugs, that is largely responsible for those benefits. The largest and most consistent cardiovascular outcome benefit has been a reduction in the risk of stroke, but reductions in myocardial infarction and cardiovascular mortality also have been seen regularly.
Elevated systolic or diastolic pressure causes increased cardiovascular risk, and the absolute risk increase per mmHg is greater at higher blood pressures, so that even modest reductions of severe hypertension can provide substantial benefit. Relative risk reduction from blood pressure reduction is similar across populations with varying absolute risk, so the absolute benefit is greater in patients who are at higher risk independent of their hypertension (for example, patients with diabetes or hyperlipidemia), and such patients would be expected to benefit from more aggressive treatment to a lower blood pressure goal.
Some antihypertensive drugs have smaller blood pressure effects (as monotherapy) in black patients, and many antihypertensive drugs have additional approved indications and effects (e.g., on angina, heart failure, or diabetic kidney disease). These considerations may guide selection of therapy.
A patient whose blood pressure is not adequately controlled with aliskiren alone or hydrochlorothiazide alone may be switched to combination therapy with Tekturna HCT.
A patient whose blood pressure is controlled with hydrochlorothiazide alone but who experiences hypokalemia may be switched to combination therapy with Tekturna HCT.
A patient who experiences dose-limiting adverse reactions on either component alone may be switched to Tekturna HCT containing a lower dose of that component in combination with the other to achieve similar blood pressure reductions.
Tekturna HCT may be substituted for the titrated components.
Tekturna HCT may be used as initial therapy in patients who are likely to need multiple drugs to achieve their blood pressure goals.
The choice of Tekturna HCT as initial therapy should be based on an assessment of potential benefits and risks. Patients with Stage 2 hypertension are at a relatively high risk for cardiovascular events (such as strokes, heart attacks, and heart failure), kidney failure, and vision problems, so prompt treatment is clinically relevant. The decision to use a combination as initial therapy should be individualized and should be shaped by considerations such as baseline blood pressure, the target goal, and the incremental likelihood of achieving goal with a combination compared to monotherapy. Individual blood pressure goals may vary based upon the patient's risk.
Data from the high-dose multifactorial study [see Clinical Studies] provides estimates of the probability of reaching a target blood pressure with Tekturna HCT compared to aliskiren or hydrochlorothiazide monotherapy. The figures below provide estimates of the likelihood of achieving systolic or diastolic blood pressure control with Tekturna HCT 300/25 mg, based upon baseline systolic or diastolic blood pressure. The curve of each treatment group was estimated by logistic regression modeling. The estimated likelihood at the right tail of each curve is less reliable because of small numbers of subjects with high baseline blood pressures.
Figure 1: Probability of Achieving Systolic Blood Pressure
(SBP) < 140 mmHg
Figure 2: Probability of Achieving Systolic Blood Pressure
(SBP) < 130 mmHg
Figure 3: Probability of Achieving Diastolic Blood Pressure
(DBP) < 90 mmHg
Figure 4: Probability of Achieving Diastolic Blood Pressure
(DBP) < 80 mmHg
At all levels of baseline blood pressure, the probability of achieving any given diastolic or systolic goal is greater with the combination than for either monotherapy. For example, the mean baseline msSBP/msDBP for patients participating in this multifactorial study was 154/99 mmHg. A patient with a baseline blood pressure of 154/99 mmHg has about a 62% chance of achieving a goal of < 140 mmHg (systolic) and 61% chance of achieving < 90 mmHg (diastolic) on aliskiren alone, and the chance of achieving these goals on hydrochlorothiazide alone is about 54% (systolic) and 49% (diastolic). The chance of achieving these goals on Tekturna HCT rises to about 77% (systolic) and 74% (diastolic). The chance of achieving these goals on placebo is about 34% (systolic) and 37% (diastolic) [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION and Clinical Studies.].
DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION
The recommended once-daily doses of Tekturna HCT in order of increasing mean effect are 150/12.5 mg, 150/25 mg or 300/12.5 mg, and 300/25 mg.
The antihypertensive effect of Tekturna HCT is largely manifested within 1 week, with maximal effects generally seen at around 4 weeks. If blood pressure remains uncontrolled after 2 to 4 weeks of therapy, the dose may be titrated up to a maximum of aliskiren 300 mg/hydrochlorothiazide 25 mg.
A patient whose blood pressure is not adequately controlled with aliskiren alone or hydrochlorothiazide alone may be switched to combination therapy with Tekturna HCT. The usual recommended starting dose is 150/12.5 mg once daily as needed to control blood pressure. The dose may be titrated up to a maximum of aliskiren 300 mg/hydrochlorothiazide 25 mg once daily.
Tekturna HCT may be substituted for the individually titrated components.
The usual recommended starting dose is 150/12.5 mg once daily as needed to control blood pressure. The dose may be titrated up to a maximum of aliskiren 300 mg/hydrochlorothiazide 25 mg once daily.
Tekturna HCT is not recommended for use as initial therapy in patients with intravascular volume depletion [See WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
Use with Other Antihypertensive Drugs
Tekturna HCT may be administered with other antihypertensive agents. There are no data available with use of Tekturna HCT with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or beta blockers [See Clinical Studies].
Relationship to Meals
Patients should establish a routine pattern for taking Tekturna HCT with regard to meals. High-fat meals decrease absorption substantially [see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY].
Dosing in Specific Populations
The usual regimens of Tekturna HCT may be followed as long as the patient's creatinine clearance is > 30 mL/min. In patients with more severe renal impairment, loop diuretics are preferred to thiazides, so Tekturna HCT is not recommended.
Adjustment of the starting dose is not necessary with hepatic impairment.
Adjustment of the starting dose is not required for elderly patients.
Dosage Forms and Strengths
- 150 mg/12.5 mg tablets: white, biconvex ovaloid, film-coated tablets imprinted with NVR/LCI
- 150 mg/25 mg tablets: pale yellow, biconvex ovaloid, film-coated tablets imprinted with NVR/CLL
- 300 mg/12.5 mg tablets: violet white, biconvex ovaloid, film-coated tablets imprinted with NVR/CVI
- 300 mg/25 mg tablets: light yellow, biconvex ovaloid, film-coated tablets imprinted with NVR/CW
Tekturna HCT is supplied as biconvex, ovaloid film-coated tablets.
All strengths are packaged in bottles and unit-dose blister packages (10 strips of 10 tablets) as described below.
Table 5: Tekturna HCT Tablets Supply
|Tablet||Color||Imprint||Imprint||NDC 0078- XXXX-XX|
|Aliskiren/ HCTZ||Side 1||Side 2||Bottle of 30||Bottle of 90||Blister Packages of 100|
|1 50 mg/12.5 mg||White||NVR||LCI||0521-15||0521-34||0521-35|
|150 mg/25 mg||Pale Yellow||NVR||CLL||0522-15||0522-34||0522-35|
|300 mg/12.5 mg||Violet White||NVR||CVI||0523-15||0523-34||0523-35|
|300 mg/25 mg||Light Yellow||NVR||CVV||0524-15||0524-34||0524-35|
Store at 25°C (77°F); excursions permitted to 15-30°C (59-86°F) [See USP Controlled Room Temperature].
Protect from moisture.
Dispense in original container.
Manufactured by: Novartis Pharma Produktions GmbH, Wehr, Germany. Distributed by: Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corporation, East Hanover, New Jersey 07936. Revised:10/2011
Last reviewed on RxList: 11/1/2011
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.
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