"Dec. 22, 2010 -- Scientists say they've discovered a genetic defect that may contribute to the development of as many as one in four cases of glioblastoma, the most common and aggressive type of brain tumor.
The defect, a deletion in a "...
Patients treated with TEMODAR may experience myelosuppression, including prolonged pancytopenia, which may result in aplastic anemia, which in some cases has resulted in a fatal outcome. In some cases, exposure to concomitant medications associated with aplastic anemia, including carbamazepine, phenytoin, and sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim, complicates assessment. Prior to dosing, patients must have an absolute neutrophil count (ANC) greater than or equal to 1.5 x 109/L and a platelet count greater than or equal to 100 x 109/L. A complete blood count should be obtained on Day 22 (21 days after the first dose) or within 48 hours of that day, and weekly until the ANC is above 1.5 x 109/L and platelet count exceeds 100 x 109/L. Geriatric patients and women have been shown in clinical trials to have a higher risk of developing myelosuppression.
For treatment of newly diagnosed glioblastoma multiforme: Prophylaxis against Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) is required for all patients receiving concomitant TEMODAR and radiotherapy for the 42-day regimen.
There may be a higher occurrence of PCP when temozolomide is administered during a longer dosing regimen. However, all patients receiving temozolomide, particularly patients receiving steroids, should be observed closely for the development of PCP regardless of the regimen.
For the 28-day treatment cycles, a complete blood count should be obtained prior to treatment on Day 1 and on Day 22 (21 days after the first dose) of each cycle. Blood counts should be performed weekly until recovery if the ANC falls below 1.5 x 109/L and the platelet count falls below 100 x 109/L [see Recommended Dosing and Dose Modification Guidelines].
Fatal and severe hepatotoxicity have been reported in patients receiving TEMODAR. Perform liver function tests at baseline, midway through the first cycle, prior to each subsequent cycle, and approximately two to four weeks after the last dose of TEMODAR.
Use In Pregnancy
TEMODAR can cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman. Administration of TEMODAR to rats and rabbits during organogenesis at 0.38 and 0.75 times the maximum recommended human dose (75 and 150 mg/m²), respectively, caused numerous fetal malformations of the external organs, soft tissues, and skeleton in both species [see Use In Specific Populations].
As bioequivalence has been established only when TEMODAR for Injection was given over 90 minutes, infusion over a shorter or longer period of time may result in suboptimal dosing. Additionally, the possibility of an increase in infusion-related adverse reactions cannot be ruled out.
Patient Counseling Information
See FDA-Approved Patient Labeling (PATIENT INFORMATION).
Information For The Patient
Physicians should discuss the following with their patients:
- Nausea and vomiting are the most frequently occurring adverse reactions. Nausea and vomiting are usually either self-limiting or readily controlled with standard antiemetic therapy.
- Capsules should not be opened. If capsules are accidentally opened or damaged, rigorous precautions should be taken with the capsule contents to avoid inhalation or contact with the skin or mucous membranes.
- The medication should be kept away from children and pets.
Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment Of Fertility
Temozolomide is carcinogenic in rats at doses less than the maximum recommended human dose. Temozolomide induced mammary carcinomas in both males and females at doses 0.13 to 0.63 times the maximum human dose (25-125 mg/m²) when administered orally on 5 consecutive days every 28 days for 6 cycles. Temozolomide also induced fibrosarcomas of the heart, eye, seminal vesicles, salivary glands, abdominal cavity, uterus, and prostate, carcinomas of the seminal vesicles, schwannomas of the heart, optic nerve, and harderian gland, and adenomas of the skin, lung, pituitary, and thyroid at doses 0.5 times the maximum daily dose. Mammary tumors were also induced following 3 cycles of temozolomide at the maximum recommended daily dose.
Temozolomide is a mutagen and a clastogen. In a reverse bacterial mutagenesis assay (Ames assay), temozolomide increased revertant frequency in the absence and presence of metabolic activation. Temozolomide was clastogenic in human lymphocytes in the presence and absence of metabolic activation.
Temozolomide impairs male fertility. Temozolomide caused syncytial cells/immature sperm formation at 0.25 and 0.63 times the maximum recommended human dose (50 and 125 mg/m²) in rats and dogs, respectively, and testicular atrophy in dogs at 0.63 times the maximum recommended human dose (125 mg/m²).
Use In Specific Populations
Pregnancy Category D. See WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS section.
TEMODAR can cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman. Five consecutive days of oral temozolomide administration of 0.38 and 0.75 times the highest recommended human dose (75 and 150 mg/m²) in rats and rabbits, respectively, during the period of organogenesis caused numerous malformations of the external and internal soft tissues and skeleton in both species. Doses equivalent to 0.75 times the highest recommended human dose (150 mg/m²) caused embryolethality in rats and rabbits as indicated by increased resorptions. There are no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women. If this drug is used during pregnancy, or if the patient becomes pregnant while taking this drug, the patient should be apprised of the potential hazard to a fetus. Women of childbearing potential should be advised to avoid becoming pregnant during therapy with TEMODAR.
It is not known whether this drug is excreted in human milk. Because many drugs are excreted in human milk and because of the potential for serious adverse reactions in nursing infants and tumorigenicity shown for temozolomide in animal studies, a decision should be made whether to discontinue nursing or to discontinue the drug, taking into account the importance of TEMODAR to the mother.
Safety and effectiveness in pediatric patients have not been established. TEMODAR Capsules have been studied in 2 open-label studies in pediatric patients (aged 3-18 years) at a dose of 160 to 200 mg/m² daily for 5 days every 28 days. In one trial, 29 patients with recurrent brain stem glioma and 34 patients with recurrent high grade astrocytoma were enrolled. All patients had recurrence following surgery and radiation therapy, while 31% also had disease progression following chemotherapy. In a second study conducted by the Children's Oncology Group (COG), 122 patients were enrolled, including patients with medulloblastoma/PNET (29), high grade astrocytoma (23), low grade astrocytoma (22), brain stem glioma (16), ependymoma (14), other CNS tumors (9), and non-CNS tumors (9). The TEMODAR toxicity profile in pediatric patients is similar to adults. Table 10 shows the adverse reactions in 122 children in the COG study.
TABLE 10: Adverse Reactions Reported in the Pediatric
Cooperative Group Trial ( ≥ 10%)
|Body System/Organ Class Adverse Reaction||No. (%) of TEMODAR Patients (N=122)*|
|All Reactions||Grade 3/4|
|Subjects Reporting an AE||107 (88)||69 (57)|
|Body as a Whole|
|Central and Peripheral Nervous System|
|Central cerebral CNS cortex||22 (18)||13 (11)|
|Nausea||56 (46)||5 (4)|
|Vomiting||62 (51)||4 (3)|
|Platelet, Bleeding and Clotting|
|Thrombocytopenia||71 (58)||31 (25)|
|Red Blood Cell Disorders|
|Decreased Hemoglobin||62 (51)||7 (6)|
|White Cell and RES Disorders|
|Decreased WBC||71 (58)||21 (17)|
|Lymphopenia||73 (60)||48 (39)|
|Neutropenia||62 (51)||24 (20)|
|*These various tumors included the following: PNET-medulloblastoma, glioblastoma, low grade astrocytoma, brain stem tumor, ependymoma, mixed glioma, oligodendroglioma, neuroblastoma, Ewing's sarcoma, pineoblastoma, alveolar soft part sarcoma, neurofibrosarcoma, optic glioma, and osteosarcoma.|
Clinical studies of temozolomide did not include sufficient numbers of subjects aged 65 and over to determine whether they responded differently from younger subjects. Other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between the elderly and younger patients. In general, dose selection for an elderly patient should be cautious, reflecting the greater frequency of decreased hepatic, renal, or cardiac function, and of concomitant disease or other drug therapy.
In the anaplastic astrocytoma study population, patients 70 years of age or older had a higher incidence of Grade 4 neutropenia and Grade 4 thrombocytopenia (2/8; 25%, P=0.31 and 2/10; 20%, P=0.09, respectively) in the first cycle of therapy than patients under 70 years of age [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS and ADVERSE REACTIONS].
In newly diagnosed patients with glioblastoma multiforme, the adverse reaction profile was similar in younger patients ( < 65 years) vs. older ( ≥ 65 years).
Caution should be exercised when TEMODAR is administered to patients with severe renal impairment [see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY].
Caution should be exercised when TEMODAR is administered to patients with severe hepatic impairment [see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY].
Last reviewed on RxList: 5/23/2014
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.
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