Tetanus Toxoid Adsorbed
"By Brenda Goodman, MA
WebMD Health News Reviewed by Michael W. Smith, MD
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Tetanus Toxoid Adsorbed
Body System As a Whole
Adverse reactions may be local and include redness, warmth, edema, induration with or without tenderness as well as urticaria, and rash. Malaise, transient fever, pain, hypotension, nausea and arthralgia may develop in some patients after the injection. Arthus-type hypersensitivity reactions, characterized by severe local reactions (generally starting 2 to 8 hours after an injection) may occur, particularly in persons who have received multiple prior boosters.1
Rarely, an anaphylactic reaction (i.e., hives, swelling of the mouth, difficulty breathing, hypotension, or shock) and death have been reported after receiving preparations containing tetanus and diphtheria antigens.
Deaths have been reported in temporal association with the administration of tetanus toxoid containing vaccines. On rare occasion, anaphylaxis has been reported following administration of products containing tetanus toxoid. Upon review, a report by the Institute of Medicine (IOM) concluded the evidence established a causal relationship between tetanus toxoid and anaphylaxis.6
The following neurologic illnesses have been reported as temporally associated with vaccine containing tetanus toxoid: neurological complications13 including cochlear lesion,14 brachial plexus neuropathies,14,15 paralysis of the radial nerve,16 paralysis of the recurrent nerve,14 accommodation paresis, Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) and EEG disturbances with encephalopathy. The IOM following review of the reports of neurologic events following vaccination with tetanus toxoid, Td or DT, concluded the evidence favored acceptance of a causal relationship between tetanus toxoid and brachial neuritis and GBS.6,17
EPINEPHRINE INJECTION (1:1000) MUST BE IMMEDIATELY AVAILABLE SHOULD AN ACUTE ANAPHYLACTIC REACTION OCCUR DUE TO ANY COMPONENT OF THE VACCINE.
Reporting of Adverse Events
The National Vaccine Injury Compensation Program, established by the National Childhood Vaccine Injury Act of 1986, requires physicians and other health-care providers who administer vaccines to maintain permanent vaccination records and to report occurrences of certain adverse events to the US Department of Health and Human Services. Reportable events include those listed in the Act for each vaccine and events specified in the package insert as contraindications to further doses of the vaccine.9,10
Reporting by parents or guardians of all adverse events after vaccine administration should be encouraged. Adverse events following immunization with vaccine should be reported by health-care providers to the US Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS). Reporting forms and information about reporting requirements or completion of the form can be obtained from VAERS through a toll-free number 1-800-822-7967.8,9,10
Health-care providers also should report these events to Director of Scientific and Medical Affairs, Aventis Pasteur Inc., Discovery Drive, Swiftwater, PA 18370 or call 1-800-822-2463.
Read the Tetanus Toxoid Adsorbed (tetanus toxoid adsorbed) Side Effects Center for a complete guide to possible side effects
If passive immunization for tetanus is needed, TIG (Human) is the product of choice. It provides longer protection than antitoxin of animal origin and causes few adverse reactions. The currently recommended prophylactic dose of TIG (Human) for wounds of average severity is 250 units intramuscularly. When Tetanus Toxoid Adsorbed vaccine and TIG (Human) are given concurrently, separate syringes and separate sites should be used. The ACIP recommends the use of only adsorbed toxoid in this situation.1
1. Recommendations of the Immunization Practices Advisory Committee (ACIP). Diphtheria, Tetanus, and Pertussis: Recommendations for vaccine use and other preventive measures. MMWR 40: No. RR-10, 1991
6. Stratton KR, et al. Adverse events associated with childhood vaccines. Evidence Bearing on Causality. National Academy Press, Washington, DC, 1994
8. CDC. Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System – United States. MMWR 39: 730-733, 1990
9. CDC. National Childhood Vaccine Injury Act: requirements for permanent vaccination records and for reporting of selected events after vaccination. MMWR 37: 197-200, 1988
10. Food and Drug Administration. New reporting requirements for vaccine adverse events. FDA Drug Bull 18 (2), 16-18, 1988
13. Rutledge SL, et al. Neurological complications of immunizations. J. Pediatr 109: 917-924, 1986
14. Wilson GS. The Hazards of Immunization. Allergic manifestations: post-vaccinal neuritis. pp 153-156, 1967
15. Tsairis P, et al. Natural history of brachial plexus neuropathy. Arch Neurol 27: 109-117, 1972
16. Blumstein GI, et al. Peripheral neuropathy following tetanus toxoid administration. JAMA 198: 1030-1031, 1966
17. Pollard JD, et al. Relapsing neuropathy due to tetanus toxoid: report of a case. J Neurol Sci 37: 112-125, 1978
Last reviewed on RxList: 1/13/2009
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.
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