Thyroid Nodules (cont.)
Robert Ferry Jr., MD
Robert Ferry Jr., MD, is a U.S. board-certified Pediatric Endocrinologist. After taking his baccalaureate degree from Yale College, receiving his doctoral degree and residency training in pediatrics at University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio (UTHSCSA), he completed fellowship training in pediatric endocrinology at The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia.
Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD
Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD, is a U.S. board-certified Anatomic Pathologist with subspecialty training in the fields of Experimental and Molecular Pathology. Dr. Stöppler's educational background includes a BA with Highest Distinction from the University of Virginia and an MD from the University of North Carolina. She completed residency training in Anatomic Pathology at Georgetown University followed by subspecialty fellowship training in molecular diagnostics and experimental pathology.
In this Article
- Thyroid nodules facts
- Introduction to thyroid nodules
- What is the prevalence of thyroid nodules and cancer?
- What are the symptoms of thyroid nodules?
- What are the types of thyroid nodules?
- What is a goiter?
- How are thyroid nodules diagnosed?
- What is the treatment for thyroid nodules?
- Find a local Endocrinologist in your town
What is the treatment for thyroid nodules?
Follicular adenomas are difficult to distinguish from follicular cancers. Follicular nodules, other nodules highly suspicious for cancerous and definite cancer should be treated by surgery. Most thyroid cancers are curable and rarely cause life-threatening problems. Any nodule not removed needs to be watched closely by follow-up with the physician every 6 to 12 months. This follow-up may involve a physical examination, ultrasound examination, or both. Occasionally, a physician may attempt to shrink the nodule by using suppressive doses of thyroid hormone. Some physicians believe that if a nodule shrinks on suppressive therapy, it is more likely to be benign. If the nodule continues to grow regardless of suppressive therapy, surgery should be considered strongly. The value of suppressive therapy, however, is controversial.
If a nodule causes hyperthyroidism, it is usually noncancerous. Treatment is aimed at preventing the signs, symptoms, and complications of hyperthyroidism, such as heart failure, osteoporosis,, and rapid heart rate. Treatments include destroying the gland using radioactive iodine (131-iodine), blocking production of thyroid hormone with medications, or conservatively following the patient with mild hyperthyroidism. "Subclinical hyperthyroidism" refers to an adult patient with a hyperfunctioning nodule, but TSH is minimally suppressed and the blood levels of thyroid hormones are normal. Treatment is individualized based on age, presence of other medical conditions, and patient preference.
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