"The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved diclofenac sodium injection (Dyloject, Hospira Inc), a proprietary nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) for the treatment of mild to moderate pain, and for the management of mod"...
The following adverse reactions are discussed in greater detail in other sections of the labeling:
- Cardiovascular Thrombotic Events [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]
- GI Bleeding, Ulceration and Perforation [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]
- Hepatotoxicity [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]
- Hypertension [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]
- Heart Failure and Edema [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]
- Renal Toxicity and Hyperkalemia [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]
- Anaphylactic Reactions [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]
- Serious Skin Reactions [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]
- Hematologic Toxicity [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]
Clinical Trials Experience
Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in clinical practice.
Five hundred and fifty-four patients (554) received TIVORBEX 20 mg or 40 mg for up to 48 hours in two double-blind, placebo-controlled, clinical trials of acute pain following bunionectomy. The most frequent adverse reactions in these trials are summarized below.
Table 1 : Summary of Adverse Reactions ( ≥ 2% in
TIVORBEX 20 mg or 40 mg group) - Phase 3 Studies in Patients With Postsurgical
|Any Treatment Emergent AE||TIVORBEX 40 mg three times daily* (%)
|TIVORBEX 40 mg twice daily*(%)
|TIVORBEX 20 mg three times daily*(%)
|Post procedural edema||24||22||26||32|
|Post procedural hemorrhage||5||11||5||6|
|Post procedural swelling||1||3||1||1|
|Abdominal pain, upper||2||1||2||1|
|*One tablet of hydrocodone/acetaminophen 10 mg/325 mg was permitted every 4 to 6 hours as rescue medication for pain management. There was a greater use of concomitant opioid rescue medication in placebo-treated patients than in TIVORBEX-treated patients [see Clinical Studies].|
The following adverse reactions have been identified during post approval use of indomethacin. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure.
Gastrointestinal: anorexia, bloating (includes distension), flatulence, peptic ulcer, gastroenteritis, rectal bleeding, proctitis, single or multiple ulcerations, including perforation and hemorrhage of the esophagus, stomach, duodenum or small and large intestines intestinal ulceration associated with stenosis and obstruction, gastrointestinal bleeding without obvious ulcer formation and perforation of preexisting sigmoid lesions (diverticulum, carcinoma, etc) development of ulcerative colitis and regional ileitis ulcerative stomatitis, toxic hepatitis and jaundice (some fatal cases have been reported), intestinal strictures (diaphragms).
Hematologic: leukopenia, bone marrow depression, anemia secondary to obvious or occult gastrointestinal bleeding, aplastic anemia, hemolytic anemia, agranulocytosis, thrombocytopenic purpura, disseminated intravascular coagulation.
Central Nervous System: anxiety (includes nervousness), muscle weakness, involuntary muscle movements, insomnia, confusion, psychic disturbances including psychotic episodes, mental confusion, drowsiness, light-headedness, syncope, paresthesia, aggravation of epilepsy and parkinsonism, depersonalization, coma, peripheral neuropathy, convulsion, dysarthria.
Metabolic: edema, weight gain, fluid retention, flushing or sweating, hyperglycemia, glycosuria, hyperkalemia
Special Senses: ocular — corneal deposits and retinal disturbances, including those of the macula, have been reported in some patients on prolonged therapy with indomethacin; blurred vision, diplopia, hearing disturbances, deafness.
Skin and Appendages: pruritus, rash, urticaria, petechiae or ecchymosis, exfoliative dermatitis, erythema nodosum, loss of hair, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, erythema multiforme, toxic epidermal necrolysis.
Causal Relationship Unknown
Other reactions have been reported but occurred under circumstances where a causal relationship could not be established. However, in these rarely reported events, the possibility cannot be excluded. Therefore, these observations are being listed to serve as alerting information to physicians:
Hematologic: Although there have been several reports of leukemia, the supporting information is weak
Genitourinary: Urinary frequency
Musculoskeletal and Connective Tissue: A rare occurrence of fulminant necrotizing fasciitis, particularly in association with Group Ab hemolytic streptococcus, has been described in persons treated with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents, including indomethacin, sometimes with fatal outcome [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
Read the Tivorbex (indomethacin capsules) Side Effects Center for a complete guide to possible side effects
See Table 2 for clinically significant drug interactions with indomethacin.
Table 2 : Clinically Significant Drug Interactions
|Drugs That Interfere with Hemostasis|
|Intervention:||Monitor patients with concomitant use of TIVORBEX with anticoagulants (e.g., warfarin), antiplatelet agents (e.g., aspirin), selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), and serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) for signs of bleeding [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].|
|Clinical Impact:||Controlled clinical studies showed that the concomitant use of NSAIDs and analgesic doses of aspirin does not produce any greater therapeutic effect than the use of NSAIDs alone. In a clinical study, the concomitant use of an NSAID and aspirin was associated with a significantly increased incidence of GI adverse reactions as compared to use of the NSAID alone [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].|
|Intervention:||Concomitant use of TIVORBEX and analgesic doses of aspirin is not generally recommended because of the increased risk of bleeding [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]. TIVORBEX is not a substitute for low dose aspirin for cardiovascular protection|
|ACE Inhibitors, Angiotensin Receptor Blockers, and Beta-Blockers|
|Clinical Impact:||Clinical studies, as well as post-marketing observations, showed that NSAIDs reduced the natriuretic effect of loop diuretics (e.g., furosemide) and thiazide diuretics in some patients. This effect has been attributed to the NSAID inhibition of renal prostaglandin synthesis.
It has been reported that the addition of triamterene to a maintenance schedule of indomethacin resulted in reversible acute renal failure in two of four healthy volunteers. Indomethacin and triamterene should not be administered together.
Both indomethacin and potassium-sparing diuretics may be associated with increased serum potassium levels. The potential effects of indomethacin and potassium-sparing diuretics on potassium levels and renal function should be considered when these agents are administered concurrently [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
|Intervention:||Indomethacin and triamterene should not be administered together. During concomitant use of TIVORBEX with diuretics, observe patients for signs of worsening renal function, in addition to assuring diuretic efficacy including antihypertensive effects. Be aware that indomethacin and potassium-sparing diuretics may both be associated with increased serum potassium levels [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].|
|Clinical Impact:||The concomitant use of indomethacin with digoxin has been reported to increase the serum concentration and prolong the half-life of digoxin.|
|Intervention:||During concomitant use of TIVORBEX and digoxin, monitor serum digoxin levels.|
|Clinical Impact:||NSAIDs have produced elevations in plasma lithium levels and reductions in renal lithium clearance. The mean minimum lithium concentration increased 15%, and the renal clearance decreased by approximately 20%. This effect has been attributed to NSAID inhibition of renal prostaglandin synthesis.|
|Intervention:||During concomitant use of TIVORBEX and lithium, monitor patients for signs of lithium toxicity.|
|Clinical Impact:||Concomitant use of NSAIDs and methotrexate may increase the risk for methotrexate toxicity (e.g., neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, renal dysfunction).|
|Intervention:||During concomitant use of TIVORBEX and methotrexate, monitor patients for methotrexate toxicity.|
|Clinical Impact:||Concomitant use of TIVORBEX and cyclosporine may increase cyclosporine’s nephrotoxicity.|
|Intervention:||During concomitant use of TIVORBEX and cyclosporine, monitor patients for signs of worsening renal function.|
|NSAIDs and Salicylates|
|Clinical Impact:||Concomitant use of indomethacin with other NSAIDs or salicylates (e.g., diflunisal, salsalate) increases the risk of GI toxicity, with little or no increase in efficacy [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]. Combined use with diflunisal may be particularly hazardous because diflunisal causes significantly higher plasma levels of indomethacin. [see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY]. In some patients, combined use of indomethacin and diflunisal has been associated with fatal gastrointestinal hemorrhage.|
|Intervention:||The concomitant use of indomethacin with other NSAIDs or salicylates , especially diflunisal, is not recommended.|
|Clinical Impact:||Concomitant use of TIVORBEX and pemetrexed may increase the risk of pemetrexed-associated myelosuppression, renal, and GI toxicity (see the pemetrexed prescribing information).|
|Intervention:||During concomitant use of TIVORBEX and pemetrexed, in patients with renal impairment whose creatinine clearance ranges from 45 to 79 mL/min, monitor for myelosuppression, renal and GI toxicity. NSAIDs with short elimination half-lives (e.g., diclofenac, indomethacin) should be avoided for a period of two days before, the day of, and two days following administration of pemetrexed. In the absence of data regarding potential interaction between pemetrexed and NSAIDs with longer half-lives (e.g., meloxicam, nabumetone), patients taking these NSAIDs should interrupt dosing for at least five days before, the day of, and two days following pemetrexed administration.|
|Clinical Impact||When indomethacin is given to patients receiving probenecid, the plasma levels of indomethacin are likely to be increased.|
|Intervention||During the concomitant use of TIVORBEX and probenecid, a lower total daily dosage of indomethacin may produce a satisfactory therapeutic effect. When increases in the dose of indomethacin are made, they should be made carefully and in small increments.|
Effects On Laboratory Tests
Indomethacin reduces basal plasma renin activity (PRA), as well as those elevations of PRA induced by furosemide administration, or salt or volume depletion. These facts should be considered when evaluating plasma renin activity in hypertensive patients.
False-negative results in the dexamethasone suppression test (DST) in patients being treated with indomethacin have been reported. Thus, results of the DST should be interpreted with caution in these patients.This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.
Last reviewed on RxList: 5/23/2016
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