"Dec. 18, 2012 -- People who can't get their high blood pressure down with drugs may be helped by a new procedure that deactivates overactive nerves in the kidneys, a small study shows.
The procedure is already available in Europe and "...
TOPROL-XL is indicated for the treatment of hypertension, to lower blood pressure. Lowering blood pressure lowers the risk of fatal and non-fatal cardiovascular events, primarily strokes and myocardial infarctions. These benefits have been seen in controlled trials of antihypertensive drugs from a wide variety of pharmacologic classes including metoprolol.
Control of high blood pressure should be part of comprehensive cardiovascular risk management, including, as appropriate, lipid control, diabetes management, antithrombotic therapy, smoking cessation, exercise, and limited sodium intake. Many patients will require more than 1 drug to achieve blood pressure goals. For specific advice on goals and management, see published guidelines, such as those of the National High Blood Pressure Education Program's Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure (JNC).
Numerous antihypertensive drugs, from a variety of pharmacologic classes and with different mechanisms of action, have been shown in randomized controlled trials to reduce cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, and it can be concluded that it is blood pressure reduction, and not some other pharmacologic property of the drugs, that is largely responsible for those benefits. The largest and most consistent cardiovascular outcome benefit has been a reduction in the risk of stroke, but reductions in myocardial infarction and cardiovascular mortality also have been seen regularly.
Elevated systolic or diastolic pressure causes increased cardiovascular risk, and the absolute risk increase per mmHg is greater at higher blood pressures, so that even modest reductions of severe hypertension can provide substantial benefit. Relative risk reduction from blood pressure reduction is similar across populations with varying absolute risk, so the absolute benefit is greater in patients who are at higher risk independent of their hypertension (for example, patients with diabetes or hyperlipidemia), and such patients would be expected to benefit from more aggressive treatment to a lower blood pressure goal.
Some antihypertensive drugs have smaller blood pressure effects (as monotherapy) in black patients, and many antihypertensive drugs have additional approved indications and effects (eg, on angina, heart failure, or diabetic kidney disease). These considerations may guide selection of therapy.
TOPROL-XL may be administered with other antihypertensive agents.
TOPROL-XL is indicated in the long-term treatment of angina pectoris, to reduce angina attacks and to improve exercise tolerance.
TOPROL-XL is indicated for the treatment of stable, symptomatic (NYHA Class II or III) heart failure of ischemic, hypertensive, or cardiomyopathic origin. It was studied in patients already receiving ACE inhibitors, diuretics, and, in the majority of cases, digitalis. In this population, TOPROL-XL decreased the rate of mortality plus hospitalization, largely through a reduction in cardiovascular mortality and hospitalizations for heart failure.
DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION
TOPROL-XL is an extended-release tablet intended for once daily administration. For treatment of hypertension and angina, when switching from immediate-release metoprolol to TOPROL-XL, use the same total daily dose of TOPROL-XL. Individualize the dosage of TOPROL-XL. Titration may be needed in some patients.
TOPROL-XL tablets are scored and can be divided; however, do not crush or chew the whole or half tablet.
Adults: The usual initial dosage is 25 to 100 mg daily in a single dose. The dosage may be increased at weekly (or longer) intervals until optimum blood pressure reduction is achieved. In general, the maximum effect of any given dosage level will be apparent after 1 week of therapy. Dosages above 400 mg per day have not been studied.
Pediatric Hypertensive Patients ≥ 6 Years of age: A pediatric clinical hypertension study in patients 6 to 16 years of age did not meet its primary endpoint (dose response for reduction in SBP); however some other endpoints demonstrated effectiveness [see Use In Specific Populations]. If selected for treatment, the recommended starting dose of TOPROL-XL is 1.0 mg/kg once daily, but the maximum initial dose should not exceed 50 mg once daily. Dosage should be adjusted according to blood pressure response. Doses above 2.0 mg/kg (or in excess of 200 mg) once daily have not been studied in pediatric patients [see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY].
TOPROL-XL is not recommended in pediatric patients < 6 years of age [see Use In Specific Populations].
Individualize the dosage of TOPROL-XL. The usual initial dosage is 100 mg daily, given in a single dose. Gradually increase the dosage at weekly intervals until optimum clinical response has been obtained or there is a pronounced slowing of the heart rate. Dosages above 400 mg per day have not been studied. If treatment is to be discontinued, reduce the dosage gradually over a period of 1 - 2 weeks [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
Dosage must be individualized and closely monitored during up-titration. Prior to initiation of TOPROL-XL, stabilize the dose of other heart failure drug therapy. The recommended starting dose of TOPROL-XL is 25 mg once daily for two weeks in patients with NYHA Class II heart failure and 12.5 mg once daily in patients with more severe heart failure. Double the dose every two weeks to the highest dosage level tolerated by the patient or up to 200 mg of TOPROL- XL. Initial difficulty with titration should not preclude later attempts to introduce TOPROL-XL. If patients experience symptomatic bradycardia, reduce the dose of TOPROL-XL. If transient worsening of heart failure occurs, consider treating with increased doses of diuretics, lowering the dose of TOPROL-XL or temporarily discontinuing it. The dose of TOPROL-XL should not be increased until symptoms of worsening heart failure have been stabilized.
Dosage Forms And Strengths
25 mg tablets: White, oval, biconvex, film-coated scored tablet engraved
50 mg tablets: White, round, biconvex, film-coated scored tablet engraved with “A/mo”.
100 mg tablets: White, round, biconvex, film-coated scored tablet engraved with “A/ms”.
200 mg tablets: White, oval, biconvex, film-coated scored tablet engraved with “A/my”.
Storage And Handling
Tablets containing metoprolol succinate equivalent to the indicated weight of metoprolol tartrate, USP, are white, biconvex, film-coated, and scored.
|Tablet||Shape||Engraving||Bottle of 100 NDC 0186||Unit Dose Packages of 100 NDC 0186|
|25 mg||Oval||A/ β||1088-05||1088-39|
|50 mg||Round||A/ mo||1090-05||1090-39|
|100 mg||Round||A/ ms||1092-05||1092-39|
|200 mg||Oval||A/ my||1094-05||N/A|
Store at 25°C (77°F). Excursions permitted to 15-30°C (59- 86°F). (See USP Controlled Room Temperature.)
Distributed by: AstraZeneca LP Wilmington, DE 19850. Revised: 10/12
Last reviewed on RxList: 11/14/2012
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.
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