"What are calcium channel blockers (CCBs) and how do they work?
Calcium channel blockers are drugs that block the entry of calcium into the muscle cells of the heart and arteries.
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Signs and Symptoms
Overdosage of TOPROL-XL may lead to severe bradycardia, hypotension, and cardiogenic shock. Clinical presentation can also include: atrioventricular block, heart failure, bronchospasm, hypoxia, impairment of consciousness/coma, nausea and vomiting.
Consider treating the patient with intensive care. Patients with myocardial infarction or heart failure may be prone to significant hemodynamic instability. Seek consultation with a regional poison control center and a medical toxicologist as needed. Beta-blocker overdose may result in significant resistance to resuscitation with adrenergic agents, including beta-agonists. On the basis of the pharmacologic actions of metoprolol, employ the following measures.
There is very limited experience with the use of hemodialysis to remove metoprolol, however metoprolol is not highly protein bound.
Bradycardia: Administer intravenous atropine; repeat to effect. If the response is inadequate, consider intravenous isoproterenol or other positive chronotropic agents. Evaluate the need for transvenous pacemaker insertion.
Hypotension: Treat underlying bradycardia. Consider intravenous vasopressor infusion, such as dopamine or norepinephrine.
Bronchospasm: Administer a beta2-agonist, including albuterol inhalation, or an oral theophylline derivative.
Cardiac Failure: Administer diuretics or digoxin for congestive heart failure. For cardiogenic shock, consider IV dobutamine, isoproterenol, or glucagon.
TOPROL-XL is contraindicated in severe bradycardia, second or third degree heart block, cardiogenic shock, decompensated cardiac failure, sick sinus syndrome (unless a permanent pacemaker is in place), and in patients who are hypersensitive to any component of this product.This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.
Last reviewed on RxList: 11/14/2012
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