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Toradol

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Toradol

Discontinued Warning IconPlease Note: This Brand Name drug is no longer available in the US.
(Generic versions may still be available.)

Side Effects
Interactions

SIDE EFFECTS

Adverse reaction rates increase with higher doses of TORADOL (ketorolac tromethamine) . Practitioners should be alert for the severe complications of treatment with TORADOL (ketorolac tromethamine) , such as GI ulceration, bleeding and perforation, postoperative bleeding, acute renal failure, anaphylactic and anaphylactoid reactions and liver failure (see BOXED WARNING, WARNINGS, PRECAUTIONS, and DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION). These NSAID-related complications can be serious in certain patients for whom TORADOL (ketorolac tromethamine) is indicated, especially when the drug is used inappropriately.

In patients taking TORADOL (ketorolac tromethamine) or other NSAIDs in clinical trials, the most frequently reported adverse experiences in approximately 1% to 10% of patients are:

Gastrointestinal (GI) experiences including:
abdominal pain* constipation/diarrhea dyspepsia*
flatulence GI fullness GI ulcers (gastric/duodenal)
gross bleeding/perforation Heartburn nausea*
stomatitis Vomiting  
Other experiences:
abnormal renal function Anemia dizziness
drowsiness Edema elevated liver enzymes
headaches* Hypertension increased bleeding time
injection site pain Pruritus purpura
rashes Tinnitus sweating
*Incidence greater than 10%

Additional adverse experiences reported occasionally ( < 1% in patients taking TORADOL (ketorolac tromethamine) or other NSAIDs in clinical trials) include:

Body as a Whole: fever, infections, sepsis

Cardiovascular: congestive heart failure, palpitation, pallor, tachycardia, syncope

Dermatologic: alopecia, photosensitivity, urticaria

Gastrointestinal: anorexia, dry mouth, eructation, esophagitis, excessive thirst, gastritis, glossitis, hematemesis, hepatitis, increased appetite, jaundice, melena, rectal bleeding

Hemic and Lymphatic: ecchymosis, eosinophilia, epistaxis, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia

Metabolic and Nutritional: weight change

Nervous System: abnormal dreams, abnormal thinking, anxiety, asthenia, confusion, depression, euphoria, extrapyramidal symptoms, hallucinations, hyperkinesis, inability to concentrate, insomnia, nervousness, paresthesia, somnolence, stupor, tremors, vertigo, malaise

Reproductive, female: infertility

Respiratory: asthma, cough, dyspnea, pulmonary edema, rhinitis

Special Senses: abnormal taste, abnormal vision, blurred vision, hearing loss

Urogenital: cystitis, dysuria, hematuria, increased urinary frequency, interstitial nephritis, oliguria/polyuria, proteinuria, renal failure, urinary retention

Other rarely observed reactions (reported from postmarketing experience in patients taking TORADOL (ketorolac tromethamine) or other NSAIDs) are:

Body as a Whole: angioedema, death, hypersensitivity reactions such as anaphylaxis, anaphylactoid reaction, laryngeal edema, tongue edema (see WARNINGS), myalgia

Cardiovascular: arrhythmia, bradycardia, chest pain, flushing, hypotension, myocardial infarction, vasculitis

Dermatologic: exfoliative dermatitis, erythema multiforme, Lyell's syndrome, bullous reactions including Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis

Gastrointestinal: acute pancreatitis, liver failure, ulcerative stomatitis, exacerbation of inflammatory bowel disease (ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease)

Hemic and Lymphatic: agranulocytosis, aplastic anemia, hemolytic anemia, lymphadenopathy, pancytopenia, postoperative wound hemorrhage (rarely requiring blood transfusion - see BOXED WARNING, WARNINGS, and PRECAUTIONS)

Metabolic and Nutritional: hyperglycemia, hyperkalemia, hyponatremia

Nervous System: aseptic meningitis, convulsions, coma, psychosis

Respiratory: bronchospasm, respiratory depression, pneumonia

Special Senses: conjunctivitis

Urogenital: flank pain with or without hematuria and/or azotemia, hemolytic uremic syndrome

Postmarketing Surveillance Study

A large postmarketing observational, nonrandomized study, involving approximately 10,000 patients receiving ketorolac tromethamineIV/IM, demonstrated that the risk of clinically serious gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding was dose-dependent (see Tables 3A and 3B). This was particularly true in elderly patients who received an average daily dose greater than 60 mg/day of ketorolac tromethamineIV/IM (see Table 3A).

Table 3 Incidence of Clinically Serious GI Bleeding as Related to Age, Total Daily Dose, and History of GI Perforation, Ulcer, Bleeding (PUB) After up to 5 Days of Treatment With Ketorolac TromethamineIV/IMA.

A. Adult Patients Without History of PUB
Age of Patients Total Daily Dose of Ketorolac TromethamineIV/IM
  ≤ 60 mg > 60 to 90 mg > 90 to 120 mg > 120 mg
< 65 years of age 0.4% 0.4% 0.9% 4.6%
≥ 65 years of age 1.2% 2.8% 2.2% 7.7%
B. Adult Patients With History of PUB
Age of Patients Total Daily Dose of Ketorolac TromethamineIV/IM
  ≤ 60 mg > 60 to 90 mg > 90 to 120 mg > 120 mg
< 65 years of age 2.1% 4.6% 7.8% 15.4%
≥ 65 years of age 4.7% 3.7% 2.8% 25.0%

Read the Toradol (ketorolac tromethamine) Side Effects Center for a complete guide to possible side effects

DRUG INTERACTIONS

Ketorolac is highly bound to human plasma protein (mean 99.2%). There is no evidence in animal or human studies that TORADOL (ketorolac tromethamine) induces or inhibits hepatic enzymes capable of metabolizing itself or other drugs.

Warfarin, Digoxin, Salicylate, and Heparin

The in vitro binding of warfarin to plasma proteins is only slightly reduced by ketorolac tromethamine (99.5% control vs 99.3%) when ketorolac plasma concentrations reach 5 to 10 μg/mL. Ketorolac does not alter digoxin protein binding. In vitro studies indicate that, at therapeutic concentrations of salicylate (300 μg/mL), the binding of ketorolac was reduced from approximately 99.2% to 97.5%, representing a potential twofold increase in unbound ketorolac plasma levels. Therapeutic concentrations of digoxin, warfarin, ibuprofen, naproxen, piroxicam, acetaminophen, phenytoin and tolbutamide did not alter ketorolac tromethamine protein binding.

In a study involving 12 adult volunteers, TORADOL (ketorolac tromethamine) ORAL was coadministered with a single dose of 25 mg warfarin, causing no significant changes in pharmacokinetics or pharmacodynamics of warfarin. In another study, ketorolac tromethamine dosed IV or IM was given with two doses of 5000 U of heparin to 11 healthy volunteers, resulting in a mean template bleeding time of 6.4 minutes (3.2 to 11.4 min) compared to a mean of 6.0 minutes (3.4 to 7.5 min) for heparin alone and 5.1 minutes (3.5 to 8.5 min) for placebo. Although these results do not indicate a significant interaction between TORADOL (ketorolac tromethamine) and warfarin or heparin, the administration of TORADOL (ketorolac tromethamine) to patients taking anticoagulants should be done extremely cautiously, and patients should be closely monitored (see WARNINGS and PRECAUTIONS: Hematologic Effect).

The effects of warfarin and NSAIDs, in general, on GI bleeding are synergistic, such that the users of both drugs together have a risk of serious GI bleeding higher than the users of either drug alone.

Aspirin

When TORADOL (ketorolac tromethamine) is administered with aspirin, its protein binding is reduced, although the clearance of free TORADOL (ketorolac tromethamine) is not altered. The clinical significance of this interaction is not known; however, as with other NSAIDs, concomitant administration of ketorolac tromethamine and aspirin is not generally recommended because of the potential of increased adverse effects.

Diuretics

Clinical studies, as well as postmarketing observations, have shown that TORADOL (ketorolac tromethamine) can reduce the natriuretic effect of furosemide and thiazides in some patients. This response has been attributed to inhibition of renal prostaglandin synthesis. During concomitant therapy with NSAIDs, the patient should be observed closely for signs of renal failure (see WARNINGS: Renal Effects), as well as to assure diuretic efficacy.

Probenecid

Concomitant administration of TORADOL (ketorolac tromethamine) ORAL and probenecid resulted in decreased clearance and volume of distribution of ketorolac and significant increases in ketorolac plasma levels (total AUC increased approximately threefold from 5.4 to 17.8 μg/h/mL) and terminal half-life increased approximately twofold from 6.6 to 15.1 hours. Therefore, concomitant use of TORADOL (ketorolac tromethamine) and probenecid is contraindicated.

Lithium

NSAIDs have produced an elevation of plasma lithium levels and a reduction in renal lithium clearance. The mean minimum lithium concentration increased 15% and the renal clearance was decreased by approximately 20%. These effects have been attributed to inhibition of renal prostaglandin synthesis by the NSAID. Thus, when NSAIDs and lithium are administered concurrently, subjects should be observed carefully for signs of lithium toxicity.

Methotrexate

NSAIDs have been reported to competitively inhibit methotrexate accumulation in rabbit kidney slices. This may indicate that they could enhance the toxicity of methotrexate. Caution should be used when NSAIDs are administered concomitantly with methotrexate.

ACE Inhibitors/Angiotension II Receptor Antagonists

Concomitant use of ACE inhibitors and/or angiotension II receptor antagonists may increase the risk of renal impairment, particularly in volume-depleted patients.

Reports suggest that NSAIDs may diminish the antihypertensive effect of ACE inhibitors and/or angiotension II receptor antagonists. This interaction should be given consideration in patients taking NSAIDs concomitantly with ACE inhibitors and/or angiotension II receptor antagonists.

Antiepileptic Drugs

Sporadic cases of seizures have been reported during concomitant use of TORADOL (ketorolac tromethamine) and antiepileptic drugs (phenytoin, carbamazepine).

Psychoactive Drugs

Hallucinations have been reported when TORADOL (ketorolac tromethamine) was used in patients taking psychoactive drugs (fluoxetine, thiothixene, alprazolam).

Pentoxifylline

When ketorolac tromethamine is administered concurrently with pentoxifylline, there is an increased tendency to bleeding.

Nondepolarizing Muscle Relaxants

In postmarketing experience there have been reports of a possible interaction between ketorolac tromethamineIV/IM and nondepolarizing muscle relaxants that resulted in apnea. The concurrent use of ketorolac tromethamine with muscle relaxants has not been formally studied.

Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs)

There is an increased risk of gastrointestinal bleeding when selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are combined with NSAIDs. Caution should be used when NSAIDs are administered concomitantly with SSRIs.

Read the Toradol Drug Interactions Center for a complete guide to possible interactions

Last reviewed on RxList: 12/17/2007
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

Side Effects
Interactions
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