"Investigators in The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) Research Network have uncovered a connection between how tumor cells use energy from metabolic processes and the aggressiveness of the most common form of kidney cancer, clear cell renal cell carcin"...
Hypersensitivity/infusion reactions, including but not limited to flushing, chest pain, dyspnea, hypotension, apnea, loss of consciousness, hypersensitivity and anaphylaxis, have been associated with the administration of temsirolimus. These reactions can occur very early in the first infusion, but may also occur with subsequent infusions. Patients should be monitored throughout the infusion and appropriate supportive care should be available. Temsirolimus infusion should be interrupted in all patients with severe infusion reactions and appropriate medical therapy administered.
TORISEL should be used with caution in persons with known hypersensitivity to temsirolimus or its metabolites (including sirolimus), polysorbate 80, or to any other component (including the excipients) of TORISEL.
An H1 antihistamine should be administered to patients before the start of the intravenous temsirolimus infusion. TORISEL should be used with caution in patients with known hypersensitivity to an antihistamine, or patients who cannot receive an antihistamine for other medical reasons.
If a patient develops a hypersensitivity reaction during the TORISEL infusion, the infusion should be stopped and the patient should be observed for at least 30 to 60 minutes (depending on the severity of the reaction). At the discretion of the physician, treatment may be resumed with the administration of an H1-receptor antagonist (such as diphenhydramine), if not previously administered [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION], and/or an H2-receptor antagonist (such as intravenous famotidine 20 mg or intravenous ranitidine 50 mg) approximately 30 minutes before restarting the TORISEL infusion. The infusion may then be resumed at a slower rate (up to 60 minutes).
A benefit-risk assessment should be done prior to the continuation of temsirolimus therapy in patients with severe or life-threatening reactions.
The safety and pharmacokinetics of TORISEL were evaluated in a dose escalation phase 1 study in 110 patients with normal or varying degrees of hepatic impairment. Patients with baseline bilirubin > 1.5×ULN experienced greater toxicity than patients with baseline bilirubin ≤ 1.5×ULN when treated with TORISEL. The overall frequency of ≥ grade 3 adverse reactions and deaths, including deaths due to progressive disease, were greater in patients with baseline bilirubin > 1.5×ULN due to increased risk of death [see CONTRAINDICATIONS].
Use caution when treating patients with mild hepatic impairment. Concentrations of temsirolimus and its metabolite sirolimus were increased in patients with elevated AST or bilirubin levels. If TORISEL must be given in patients with mild hepatic impairment (bilirubin > 1 – 1.5×ULN or AST > ULN but bilirubin ≤ ULN), reduce the dose of TORISEL to 15 mg/week [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION].
The use of TORISEL is likely to result in increases in serum glucose. In the phase 3 trial, 89% of patients receiving TORISEL had at least one elevated serum glucose while on treatment, and 26% of patients reported hyperglycemia as an adverse event. This may result in the need for an increase in the dose of, or initiation of, insulin and/or oral hypoglycemic agent therapy. Serum glucose should be tested before and during treatment with TORISEL. Patients should be advised to report excessive thirst or any increase in the volume or frequency of urination.
Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia (PJP), including fatalities, has been reported in patients who received temsirolimus. This may be associated with concomitant use of corticosteroids or other immunosuppressive agents. Prophylaxis of PJP should be considered when concomitant use of corticosteroids or other immunosuppressive agents are required.
Interstitial Lung Disease
Cases of interstitial lung disease, some resulting in death, occurred in patients who received TORISEL. Some patients were asymptomatic, or had minimal symptoms, with infiltrates detected on computed tomography scan or chest radiograph. Others presented with symptoms such as dyspnea, cough, hypoxia, and fever. Some patients required discontinuation of TORISEL and/or treatment with corticosteroids and/or antibiotics, while some patients continued treatment without additional intervention. Patients should be advised to report promptly any new or worsening respiratory symptoms.
It is recommended that patients undergo baseline radiographic assessment by lung computed tomography scan or chest radiograph prior to the initiation of TORISEL therapy. Follow such assessments periodically, even in the absence of clinical respiratory symptoms.
It is recommended that patients be followed closely for occurrence of clinical respiratory symptoms. If clinically significant respiratory symptoms develop, consider withholding TORISEL administration until after recovery of symptoms and improvement of radiographic findings related to pneumonitis. Empiric treatment with corticosteroids and/or antibiotics may be considered. Opportunistic infections such as PJP should be considered in the differential diagnosis. For patients who require use of corticosteroids, prophylaxis of PJP may be considered.
The use of TORISEL is likely to result in increases in serum triglycerides and cholesterol. In the phase 3 trial, 87% of patients receiving TORISEL had at least one elevated serum cholesterol value and 83% had at least one elevated serum triglyceride value. This may require initiation, or increase in the dose, of lipid-lowering agents. Serum cholesterol and triglycerides should be tested before and during treatment with TORISEL.
Cases of fatal bowel perforation occurred in patients who received TORISEL. These patients presented with fever, abdominal pain, metabolic acidosis, bloody stools, diarrhea, and/or acute abdomen. Patients should be advised to report promptly any new or worsening abdominal pain or blood in their stools.
Cases of rapidly progressive and sometimes fatal acute renal failure not clearly related to disease progression occurred in patients who received TORISEL. Some of these cases were not responsive to dialysis.
Wound Healing Complications
Use of TORISEL has been associated with abnormal wound healing. Therefore, caution should be exercised with the use of TORISEL in the perioperative period.
Patients with central nervous system tumors (primary CNS tumor or metastases) and/or receiving anticoagulation therapy may be at an increased risk of developing intracerebral bleeding (including fatal outcomes) while receiving TORISEL.
Co-administration With Inducers Or Inhibitors Of CYP3A Metabolism
Agents Inducing CYP3A Metabolism
Strong inducers of CYP3A4/5 such as dexamethasone, carbamazepine, phenytoin, phenobarbital, rifampin, rifabutin, and rifampacin may decrease exposure of the active metabolite, sirolimus. If alternative treatment cannot be administered, a dose adjustment should be considered. St. John's Wort may decrease TORISEL plasma concentrations unpredictably. Patients receiving TORISEL should not take St. John's Wort concomitantly [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION and DRUG INTERACTIONS].
Agents Inhibiting CYP3A Metabolism
Strong CYP3A4 inhibitors such as atazanavir, clarithromycin, indinavir, itraconazole, ketoconazole, nefazodone, nelfinavir, ritonavir, saquinavir, and telithromycin may increase blood concentrations of the active metabolite sirolimus. If alternative treatments cannot be administered, a dose adjustment should be considered [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION and DRUG INTERACTIONS].
Concomitant Use Of TORISEL With sunitinib
The combination of TORISEL and sunitinib resulted in dose-limiting toxicity. Dose-limiting toxicities (Grade 3/4 erythematous maculopapular rash, and gout/cellulitis requiring hospitalization) were observed in two out of three patients treated in the first cohort of a phase 1 study at doses of TORISEL 15 mg IV per week and sunitinib 25 mg oral per day (Days 1-28 followed by a 2-week rest).
The use of live vaccines and close contact with those who have received live vaccines should be avoided during treatment with TORISEL. Examples of live vaccines are: intranasal influenza, measles, mumps, rubella, oral polio, BCG, yellow fever, varicella, and TY21a typhoid vaccines.
Use In Pregnancy
There are no adequate and well-controlled studies of TORISEL in pregnant women. However, based on its mechanism of action, TORISEL may cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman. Temsirolimus administered daily as an oral formulation caused embryo-fetal and intrauterine toxicities in rats and rabbits at human sub-therapeutic exposures. If this drug is used during pregnancy or if the patient becomes pregnant while taking the drug, the patient should be apprised of the potential hazard to the fetus. Women of childbearing potential should be advised to avoid becoming pregnant throughout treatment and for 3 months after TORISEL therapy has stopped [see Use in Specific Populations].
Men should be counseled regarding the effects of TORISEL on the fetus and sperm prior to starting treatment [see Nonclinical Toxicology]. Men with partners of childbearing potential should use reliable contraception throughout treatment and are recommended to continue this for 3 months after the last dose of TORISEL.
Based on the results of a phase 3 study, elderly patients may be more likely to experience certain adverse reactions including diarrhea, edema, and pneumonia [see Use In Specific Populations].
Monitoring Laboratory Tests
In the randomized, phase 3 trial, complete blood counts (CBCs) were checked weekly, and chemistry panels were checked every two weeks. Laboratory monitoring for patients receiving TORISEL may need to be performed more or less frequently at the physician's discretion.
Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment Of Fertility
Carcinogenicity studies have not been conducted with temsirolimus. However, sirolimus, the major metabolite of temsirolimus in humans, was carcinogenic in mice and rats. The following effects were reported in mice and/or rats in the carcinogenicity studies conducted with sirolimus: lymphoma, hepatocellular adenoma and carcinoma, and testicular adenoma.
Temsirolimus was not genotoxic in a battery of in vitro (bacterial reverse mutation in Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli, forward mutation in mouse lymphoma cells, and chromosome aberrations in Chinese hamster ovary cells) and in vivo (mouse micronucleus) assays.
In male rats, the following fertility effects were observed: decreased number of pregnancies, decreased sperm concentration and motility, decreased reproductive organ weights, and testicular tubular degeneration. These effects were observed at oral temsirolimus doses ≥ 3 mg/m²/day (approximately 0.2-fold the human recommended intravenous dose). Fertility was absent at 30 mg/m²/day.
In female rats, an increased incidence of pre-and post-implantation losses occurred at oral doses ≥ 4.2 mg/m²/day (approximately 0.3-fold the human recommended intravenous dose), resulting in decreased numbers of live fetuses.
Use In Specific Populations
Pregnancy Category D
[see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
Women of childbearing potential should be advised to avoid becoming pregnant throughout treatment and for 3 months after TORISEL therapy has stopped. Temsirolimus can cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman. If this drug is used during pregnancy, or if the patient becomes pregnant while taking this drug, the patient should be apprised of the potential hazard to the fetus.
Temsirolimus administered daily as an oral formulation caused embryo-fetal and intrauterine toxicities in rats and rabbits at human sub-therapeutic exposures. Embryo-fetal adverse effects in rats consisted of reduced fetal weight and reduced ossifications, and in rabbits included reduced fetal weight, omphalocele, bifurcated sternabrae, notched ribs, and incomplete ossifications.
In rats, the intrauterine and embryo-fetal adverse effects were observed at the oral dose of 2.7 mg/m²/day (approximately 0.04-fold the AUC in patients with cancer at the human recommended dose). In rabbits, the intrauterine and embryo-fetal adverse effects were observed at the oral dose of ≥ 7.2 mg/m²/day (approximately 0.12-fold the AUC in patients with cancer at the recommended human dose).
It is not known whether TORISEL is excreted into human milk, and due to the potential for tumorigenicity shown for sirolimus (active metabolite of TORISEL) in animal studies, a decision should be made whether to discontinue nursing or discontinue TORISEL, taking into account the importance of the drug to the mother.
Limited data are available on the use of temsirolimus in pediatric patients. The effectiveness of temsirolimus in pediatric patients with advanced recurrent/refractory solid tumors has not been established.
TORISEL was studied in 71 patients (59 patients ages 1 to 17 years and 12 patients ages 18 to 21 years) with relapsed/refractory solid tumors in a phase 1-2 safety and exploratory pharmacodynamic study.
In phase 1, 19 pediatric patients with advanced recurrent/refractory solid tumors received TORISEL at doses ranging from 10 mg/m² to 150 mg/m² as a 60-minute intravenous infusion once weekly in three-week cycles.
In phase 2, 52 pediatric patients with recurrent/relapsed neuroblastoma, rhabdomyosarcoma, or high grade glioma received TORISEL at a weekly dose of 75 mg/m². One of 19 patients with neuroblastoma achieved a partial response. There were no objective responses in pediatric patients with recurrent/relapsed rhabdomyosarcoma or high grade glioma.
Adverse reactions associated with TORISEL were similar to those observed in adults. The most common adverse reactions ( ≥ 20%) in pediatric patients receiving the 75 mg/m² dose included thrombocytopenia, infections, asthenia/fatigue, fever, pain, leukopenia, rash, anemia, hyperlipidemia, increased cough, stomatitis, anorexia, increased plasma levels of alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase, hypercholesterolemia, hyperglycemia, abdominal pain, headache, arthralgia, upper respiratory infection, nausea and vomiting, neutropenia, hypokalemia, and hypophosphatemia.
In phase 1 of the above mentioned pediatric trial, the single dose and multiple dose total systemic exposure (AUC) of temsirolimus and sirolimus were less than dose-proportional over the dose range of 10 to 150 mg/m² .
In the phase 2 portion, the multiple dose (Day 1, Cycle 2) pharmacokinetics of TORISEL 75 mg/m² were characterized in an additional 35 patients ages 28 days to 21 years (median age of 8 years). The geometric mean body surface adjusted clearance of temsirolimus and sirolimus was 9.45 L/h/m² and 9.26 L/h/m², respectively. The mean elimination half-life of temsirolimus and sirolimus was 31 hours and 44 hours, respectively.
The exposure (AUCss) to temsirolimus and sirolimus was approximately 6-fold and 2-fold higher, respectively than the exposure in adult patients receiving a 25 mg intravenous infusion.
Clinical studies of TORISEL did not include sufficient numbers of subjects aged 65 and older to determine whether they respond differently from younger subjects. Based on the results of a phase 3 study, elderly patients may be more likely to experience certain adverse reactions including diarrhea, edema, and pneumonia [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
No clinical studies were conducted with TORISEL in patients with decreased renal function. Less than 5% of total radioactivity was excreted in the urine following a 25 mg intravenous dose of [14C]-labeled temsirolimus in healthy subjects. Renal impairment is not expected to markedly influence drug exposure, and no dosage adjustment of TORISEL is recommended in patients with renal impairment.
TORISEL has not been studied in patients undergoing hemodialysis.
TORISEL was evaluated in a dose escalation phase 1 study in 110 patients with normal or varying degrees of hepatic impairment as defined by AST and bilirubin levels and patients with liver transplant (Table 3). Patients with moderate and severe hepatic impairment had increased rates of adverse reactions and deaths, including deaths due to progressive disease, during the study (Table 3).
Table 3 : Adverse Reactions in Patients with Advanced
Malignancies Plus Normal or Impaired Hepatic Function
|Hepatic Function*||TORISEL Dose Range||Adverse Reactions Grade ≥ 3**
n (% )
n (% )
|Normal (n = 25)||25 - 175||20(80.0)||2(8.0)|
|Mild (n = 39)||10 - 25||32(82.1)||5(12.8)|
|Moderate (n = 20)||10 - 25||19(95.0)||8(40.0)|
|Severe (n = 24)||7.5 - 15||23(95.8)||13(54.2)|
|Liver Transplant (n = 2)||10||1(50.0)||0(0)|
|*Hepatic Function Groups: normal = bilirubin and AST
≤ ULN; mild = bilirubin > 1 – 1.5×ULN or AST > ULN but bilirubin
≤ ULN; moderate = bilirubin > 1.5 – 3×ULN; severe = bilirubin > 3×ULN;
liver transplant = any bilirubin and AST.
**Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 3.0, including all causality.
***Includes deaths due to progressive disease and adverse reactions.
TORISEL is contraindicated in patients with bilirubin > 1.5×ULN [see CONTRAINDICATIONS, and WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]. Use caution when treating patients with mild hepatic impairment. If TORISEL must be given in patients with mild hepatic impairment (bilirubin > 1-1.5×ULN or AST > ULN but bilirubin ≤ ULN), reduce the dose of TORISEL to 15 mg/week [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION]. Because there is a need for dosage adjustment based upon hepatic function, assessment of AST and bilirubin levels is recommended before initiation of TORISEL and periodically thereafter.This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.
Last reviewed on RxList: 3/18/2015
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