Total Knee Replacement
William C. Shiel Jr., MD, FACP, FACR
Dr. Shiel received a Bachelor of Science degree with honors from the University of Notre Dame. There he was involved in research in radiation biology and received the Huisking Scholarship. After graduating from St. Louis University School of Medicine, he completed his Internal Medicine residency and Rheumatology fellowship at the University of California, Irvine. He is board-certified in Internal Medicine and Rheumatology.
Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD
Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD, is a U.S. board-certified Anatomic Pathologist with subspecialty training in the fields of Experimental and Molecular Pathology. Dr. Stöppler's educational background includes a BA with Highest Distinction from the University of Virginia and an MD from the University of North Carolina. She completed residency training in Anatomic Pathology at Georgetown University followed by subspecialty fellowship training in molecular diagnostics and experimental pathology.
- Total knee replacement facts
- What is a total knee replacement?
- What patients should consider a total knee replacement?
- What are the risks of undergoing a total knee replacement?
- What is involved with the preoperative evaluation for total knee replacement?
- What happens in the postoperative period? What is involved in the recovery from surgery?
- How does the patient continue to improve as an outpatient after discharge from the hospital? What are recommended exercises?
- Patient Comments: Total Knee Replacement - Experience
- Patient Comments: Total Knee Replacement - Candidate and Causes
- Patient Comments: Total Knee Replacement - Recovery
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Total knee replacement facts
- Patients with severe destruction of the knee joint associated with progressive pain and impaired function may be candidates for total knee replacement.
- Osteoarthritis is the most common reason for knee replacement operation in the U.S.
- Risks of total knee replacement surgery have been identified.
- Physical therapy is an essential part of rehabilitation after total knee replacement.
- Patients with artificial joints are recommended to take antibiotics before, during, and after any elective invasive procedures (including dental work).
What is a total knee replacement?
A total knee replacement is a surgical procedure whereby the diseased knee joint is replaced with artificial material. The knee is a hinge joint which provides motion at the point where the thigh meets the lower leg. The thighbone (or femur) abuts the large bone of the lower leg (tibia) at the knee joint. During a total knee replacement, the end of the femur bone is removed and replaced with a metal shell. The end of the lower leg bone (tibia) is also removed and replaced with a channeled plastic piece with a metal stem. Depending on the condition of the kneecap portion of the knee joint, a plastic "button" may also be added under the kneecap surface. The artificial components of a total knee replacement are referred to as the prosthesis.
The posterior cruciate ligament is a tissue that normally stabilizes each side of the knee joint so that the lower leg cannot slide backward in relation to the thighbone. In total knee replacement surgery, this ligament is either retained, sacrificed, or substituted by a polyethylene post. Each of these various designs of total knee replacement has its own particular benefits and risks.
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