""Nonfunctional" adrenal tumors may be anything but, new research suggests.
In a study published online August 2, 2016 in the Annals of Internal Medicine, Diana Lopez, MD, of Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical Sc"...
There have been postmarketing reports of acute pancreatitis, including fatal pancreatitis, in patients taking TRADJENTA. Take careful notice of potential signs and symptoms of pancreatitis. If pancreatitis is suspected, promptly discontinue TRADJENTA and initiate appropriate management. It is unknown whether patients with a history of pancreatitis are at increased risk for the development of pancreatitis while using TRADJENTA.
Use With Medications Known To Cause Hypoglycemia
Insulin secretagogues and insulin are known to cause hypoglycemia. The use of TRADJENTA in combination with an insulin secretagogue (e.g., sulfonylurea) was associated with a higher rate of hypoglycemia compared with placebo in a clinical trial [see ADVERSE REACTIONS]. The use of TRADJENTA in combination with insulin in subjects with severe renal impairment was associated with a higher rate of hypoglycemia [see ADVERSE REACTIONS]. Therefore, a lower dose of the insulin secretagogue or insulin may be required to reduce the risk of hypoglycemia when used in combination with TRADJENTA.
There have been postmarketing reports of serious hypersensitivity reactions in patients treated with TRADJENTA. These reactions include anaphylaxis, angioedema, and exfoliative skin conditions. Onset of these reactions occurred within the first 3 months after initiation of treatment with TRADJENTA, with some reports occurring after the first dose. If a serious hypersensitivity reaction is suspected, discontinue TRADJENTA, assess for other potential causes for the event, and institute alternative treatment for diabetes.
Angioedema has also been reported with other dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors. Use caution in a patient with a history of angioedema to another DPP-4 inhibitor because it is unknown whether such patients will be predisposed to angioedema with TRADJENTA.
There have been no clinical studies establishing conclusive evidence of macrovascular risk reduction with TRADJENTA tablets or any other antidiabetic drug.
Patient Counseling Information
Advise the patient to read the FDA-approved patient labeling (Medication Guide)
Instruct patients to read the Medication Guide before starting TRADJENTA therapy and to reread it each time the prescription is renewed. Instruct patients to inform their doctor or pharmacist if they develop any unusual symptom, or if any known symptom persists or worsens.
Inform patients of the potential risks and benefits of TRADJENTA and of alternative modes of therapy. Also inform patients about the importance of adherence to dietary instructions, regular physical activity, periodic blood glucose monitoring and A1C testing, recognition and management of hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia, and assessment for diabetes complications. Advise patients to seek medical advice promptly during periods of stress such as fever, trauma, infection, or surgery, as medication requirements may change.
Inform patients that acute pancreatitis has been reported during postmarketing use of TRADJENTA. Inform patients that persistent severe abdominal pain, sometimes radiating to the back, which may or may not be accompanied by vomiting, is the hallmark symptom of acute pancreatitis. Instruct patients to discontinue TRADJENTA promptly and contact their physician if persistent severe abdominal pain occurs [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
Inform patients that the incidence of hypoglycemia is increased when TRADJENTA is added to a sulfonylurea or insulin and that a lower dose of the sulfonylurea or insulin may be required to reduce the risk of hypoglycemia.
Inform patients that serious allergic reactions, such as anaphylaxis, angioedema, and exfoliative skin conditions, have been reported during postmarketing use of TRADJENTA. If symptoms of allergic reactions (such as rash, skin flaking or peeling, urticaria, swelling of the skin, or swelling of the face, lips, tongue, and throat that may cause difficulty in breathing or swallowing) occur, patients must stop taking TRADJENTA and seek medical advice promptly.
Instruct patients to take TRADJENTA only as prescribed. If a dose is missed, advise patients not to double their next dose.
Blood Glucose and A1C Monitoring
Inform patients that response to all diabetic therapies should be monitored by periodic measurements of blood glucose and A1C levels, with a goal of decreasing these levels toward the normal range. A1C monitoring is especially useful for evaluating long-term glycemic control.
Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment Of Fertility
Linagliptin did not increase the incidence of tumors in male and female rats in a 2-year study at doses of 6, 18, and 60 mg/kg. The highest dose of 60 mg/kg is approximately 418 times the clinical dose of 5 mg/day based on AUC exposure. Linagliptin did not increase the incidence of tumors in mice in a 2-year study at doses up to 80 mg/kg (males) and 25 mg/kg (females), or approximately 35-and 270-times the clinical dose based on AUC exposure. Higher doses of linagliptin in female mice (80 mg/kg) increased the incidence of lymphoma at approximately 215-times the clinical dose based on AUC exposure.
Linagliptin was not mutagenic or clastogenic with or without metabolic activation in the Ames bacterial mutagenicity assay, a chromosomal aberration test in human lymphocytes, and an in vivo micronucleus assay.
In fertility studies in rats, linagliptin had no adverse effects on early embryonic development, mating, fertility, or bearing live young up to the highest dose of 240 mg/kg (approximately 943-times the clinical dose based on AUC exposure).
Use In Specific Populations
Pregnancy Category B
Reproduction studies have been performed in rats and rabbits. There are, however, no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women. Because animal reproduction studies are not always predictive of human response, this drug should be used during pregnancy only if clearly needed.
Linagliptin administered during the period of organogenesis was not teratogenic at doses up to 30 mg/kg in the rat and 150 mg/kg in the rabbit, or approximately 49 and 1943 times the clinical dose based on AUC exposure. Doses of linagliptin causing maternal toxicity in the rat and the rabbit also caused developmental delays in skeletal ossification and slightly increased embryofetal loss in the rat (1000 times the clinical dose) and increased fetal resorptions and visceral and skeletal variations in the rabbit (1943 times the clinical dose).
Linagliptin administered to female rats from gestation day 6 to lactation day 21 resulted in decreased body weight and delays in physical and behavioral development in male and female offspring at maternally toxic doses (exposures > 1000 times the clinical dose). No functional, behavioral, or reproductive toxicity was observed in offspring of rats exposed to 49 times the clinical dose.
Linagliptin crossed the placenta into the fetus following oral dosing in pregnant rats and rabbits.
Available animal data have shown excretion of linagliptin in milk at a milk-to-plasma ratio of 4:1. It is not known whether this drug is excreted in human milk. Because many drugs are excreted in human milk, caution should be exercised when TRADJENTA is administered to a nursing woman.
Safety and effectiveness of TRADJENTA in pediatric patients under 18 years of age have not been established.
There were 4040 type 2 diabetes patients treated with linagliptin 5 mg from 15 clinical trials of TRADJENTA; 1085 (27%) were 65 years and over, while 131 (3%) were 75 years and over. Of these patients, 2566 were enrolled in 12 double-blind placebo-controlled studies; 591 (23%) were 65 years and over, while 82 (3%) were 75 years and over. No overall differences in safety or effectiveness were observed between patients 65 years and over and younger patients. Therefore, no dose adjustment is recommended in the elderly population. While clinical studies of linagliptin have not identified differences in response between the elderly and younger patients, greater sensitivity of some older individuals cannot be ruled out.
No dose adjustment is recommended for patients with renal impairment [see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY].
No dose adjustment is recommended for patients with hepatic impairment [see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY].This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.
Last reviewed on RxList: 12/29/2016
Additional Tradjenta Information
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