Travel Medicine (cont.)
Sandra Gonzalez Gompf, MD, FACP
Sandra Gonzalez Gompf, MD, FACP is a U.S. board-certified Infectious Disease subspecialist. Dr. Gompf received a Bachelor of Science from the University of Miami, and a Medical Degree from the University of South Florida. Dr. Gompf completed residency training in Internal Medicine at the University of South Florida followed by subspecialty fellowship training there in Infectious Diseases under the directorship of Dr. John T. Sinnott, IV.
Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD
Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD, is a U.S. board-certified Anatomic Pathologist with subspecialty training in the fields of Experimental and Molecular Pathology. Dr. Stöppler's educational background includes a BA with Highest Distinction from the University of Virginia and an MD from the University of North Carolina. She completed residency training in Anatomic Pathology at Georgetown University followed by subspecialty fellowship training in molecular diagnostics and experimental pathology.
In this Article
- Why should travelers see a physician before they leave on a trip?
- What diseases occur in travelers, and how can disease be prevented?
- Traveler's diarrhea
- Meningitis and encephalitis
- Yellow fever
- Hepatitis A
- Typhoid fever
- What about diseases for which there is no vaccine or preventive medication?
- What is safe to eat and drink while traveling?
- What can I do to avoid insect bites?
- What should be in my travel first-aid kit or medicine kit?
- What are the medical concerns with jet lag?
- What if I have a medical condition or a chronic disease?
- What if I'm traveling while pregnant?
- What about traveling with children?
- Travel health insurance & medical evacuation insurance
- Travel safety and health alerts
- Where can I find additional information?
- Find a local Family Physician in your town
Traveler's diarrhea is the most common medical complaint in travelers, occurring in up to 50% of travelers to developing countries. It occurs when infectious organisms are inadvertently ingested by travelers, resulting in one to five days of loose stools. The stools are often watery and may be accompanied by abdominal cramps. Although not fatal, traveler's diarrhea can cause dehydration, vomiting, low-grade fever, and discomfort to the point that some travelers have to change their itineraries. It is important to note that traveler's diarrhea is not associated with bloody stools, severe abdominal pain, or high fever. These symptoms are suggestive of more serious conditions and should prompt medical attention.
Traveler's diarrhea is spread when bacteria or other infectious agents such as viruses are ingested. Traveler's diarrhea is most often spread through contaminated food or water, or by putting contaminated hands in the mouth. Even small amounts of contamination can cause infection. Although bacteria are the most common cause of traveler's diarrhea, there have been outbreaks of diarrhea on cruise ships caused by viruses known as noroviruses. Noroviruses spread readily from person to person.
Travelers can get diarrhea in most areas of the world, but some countries pose a higher risk. High-risk areas include most of Asia, the Middle East, Africa, and Central and South America. Risk is increased if the traveler is adventurous with his or her diet, eats foods from street vendors, or travels to areas off the usual tourist routes.
Protective measures may help prevent or shorten the duration of traveler's diarrhea. All travelers should wash their hands often and understand basic food and water precautions (see "What is safe to eat and drink while traveling?"). However, it has been shown that even well-informed travelers often choose to eat foods that pose an increased risk of traveler's diarrhea. Therefore, travelers at risk should carry in their first-aid kit an antimotility agent such as loperamide (Imodium; Kaopectate II; Imodium A-D; Maalox Anti-Diarrheal Caplets; Pepto Diarrhea Cont) and start taking it if they get symptoms. Bismuth subsalicylate (Pepto-Bismol) is also helpful.
Learn more about: Imodium
Because bacteria are developing resistance to many antibiotics, many older antibiotics do not work, and those prescribed currently may not be effective in the future. Antibiotics also have risks of their own and do not protect against viruses or parasites; therefore, routine prophylactic antibiotics are not recommended for most travelers. However, many physicians recommend that travelers carry along an antibiotic to take in case they get diarrhea. Fluoroquinolones, such as ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, ofloxacin, or norfloxacin, are the most commonly prescribed antibiotic; azithromycin (Zithromax, Zmax) or rifaximin (Xifaxan) are alternatives. If an antimotility agent (a drug that reduces gastrointestinal motility) and an antibiotic are started at the first sign of diarrhea, symptoms may be shortened to only a few hours instead of a few days.
Physicians might prescribe daily antibiotics or daily bismuth subsalicylate to prevent diarrhea in people who are immunosuppressed, or when the purpose of a trip would be severely impacted if it were interrupted by diarrhea. This is not needed for most travelers, and bismuth subsalicylate may cause adverse effects in doses required for protection. Pregnant women and children need special advice because many of these drugs are not appropriate for them. Affected people should stay well hydrated with beverages that are sealed, treated with chlorine, boiled, or are otherwise known to be purified; in most cases, commercial sports drinks are adequate, but very sugary drinks can worsen diarrhea. If antibiotics are prescribed, fill the prescription before travel; if you must buy drugs during a trip to an area of the world with few drug regulations, avoid counterfeits by using a licensed pharmacy, asking the pharmacist about the ingredients, and checking the packaging for poor print quality or odd appearance; drugs should be in the manufacturer's original packaging if at all possible.
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