Travel Medicine (cont.)
Mary D. Nettleman, MD, MS, MACP
Mary D. Nettleman, MD, MS, MACP is the Chair of the Department of Medicine at Michigan State University. She is a graduate of Vanderbilt Medical School, and completed her residency in Internal Medicine and a fellowship in Infectious Diseases at Indiana University.
Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD
Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD, is a U.S. board-certified Anatomic Pathologist with subspecialty training in the fields of Experimental and Molecular Pathology. Dr. Stöppler's educational background includes a BA with Highest Distinction from the University of Virginia and an MD from the University of North Carolina. She completed residency training in Anatomic Pathology at Georgetown University followed by subspecialty fellowship training in molecular diagnostics and experimental pathology.
In this Article
- Why should travelers see a physician before they leave on a trip?
- What diseases occur in travelers, and how can disease be prevented?
- Traveler's diarrhea
- Meningococcal meningitis
- Yellow fever
- Hepatitis A
- Typhoid fever
- What about diseases for which there is no vaccine or preventive medication?
- What is safe to eat and drink while traveling?
- What can I do to avoid insect bites?
- What should be in my travel first aid kit?
- What are the medical concerns with jet lag?
- What if I have a medical condition or a chronic disease?
- What if I'm pregnant?
- What about traveling with children?
- Where can I find additional information?
- Find a local Family Physician in your town
Hepatitis A is caused by a virus that infects the liver. People get sick two to six weeks after they get the virus. Symptoms include nausea, yellowing of the skin and eyes (jaundice), dark urine, pale stools, loss of appetite, and fatigue. The symptoms take two to six months to completely resolve. Unlike some other hepatitis viruses, hepatitis A does not cause chronic liver disease. In other words, once the person gets better, he or she is completely cured. Some infected people (especially children) are asymptomatic, meaning that they do not develop symptoms.
Hepatitis A is spread when human waste is mistakenly ingested. Even a small amount can cause disease, such as might occur by shaking hands with someone and then touching the mouth. Food preparers have transmitted disease by mistakenly contaminating food. It is also possible to get hepatitis A through sexual contact or contaminated needles or blood. Hepatitis A occurs throughout the world but is more common in developing countries.
There is an effective vaccine that is quite good at preventing hepatitis A. If you are traveling to a developing country, your doctor will probably recommend vaccination. In a few cases, your doctor might recommend a more temporary measure called gamma globulin. Remember to follow food and water precautions.
Next: Typhoid fever
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