Travel Medicine (cont.)
Sandra Gonzalez Gompf, MD, FACP
Sandra Gonzalez Gompf, MD, FACP is a U.S. board-certified Infectious Disease subspecialist. Dr. Gompf received a Bachelor of Science from the University of Miami, and a Medical Degree from the University of South Florida. Dr. Gompf completed residency training in Internal Medicine at the University of South Florida followed by subspecialty fellowship training there in Infectious Diseases under the directorship of Dr. John T. Sinnott, IV.
Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD
Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD, is a U.S. board-certified Anatomic Pathologist with subspecialty training in the fields of Experimental and Molecular Pathology. Dr. Stöppler's educational background includes a BA with Highest Distinction from the University of Virginia and an MD from the University of North Carolina. She completed residency training in Anatomic Pathology at Georgetown University followed by subspecialty fellowship training in molecular diagnostics and experimental pathology.
In this Article
- Why should travelers see a physician before they leave on a trip?
- What diseases occur in travelers, and how can disease be prevented?
- Traveler's diarrhea
- Meningitis and encephalitis
- Yellow fever
- Hepatitis A
- Typhoid fever
- What about diseases for which there is no vaccine or preventive medication?
- What is safe to eat and drink while traveling?
- What can I do to avoid insect bites?
- What should be in my travel first-aid kit or medicine kit?
- What are the medical concerns with jet lag?
- What if I have a medical condition or a chronic disease?
- What if I'm traveling while pregnant?
- What about traveling with children?
- Travel health insurance & medical evacuation insurance
- Travel safety and health alerts
- Where can I find additional information?
- Find a local Family Physician in your town
What is safe to eat and drink while traveling?
- The first line of defense against illness at home and abroad is good hand hygiene. Wash hands with soap and uncontaminated water. If water quality is unknown, use a hand sanitizer with at least 60% ethanol often and before eating or drinking.
- In general, it is best not to drink tap water in a developing country.
- Boiled water and drinks made from boiled water (tea) are usually safe.
- Carbonated bottled water or sodas are usually safe. Uncarbonated bottled water may be safe, but even bottled water may be filled up from the local tap water source.
- Iodine tablets or commercially available water filters may be used to purify water when camping.
- Ice (including flavored shaved ice or popsicles) is not safe in areas where the water supply may be contaminated. Make ice from disinfected or bottled, sealed water.
- Alcohol (beer, wine) is usually safe.
- Fruits and vegetables washed in contaminated water may have a residue of bacteria. In general, wash in clean water and peel them yourself.
- Hot, well-cooked foods are usually safe. Avoid runny eggs.
- Avoid street vendor food.
- Avoid salsas and salads made with raw ingredients.
- Avoid unpasteurized dairy products.
- Spices do not kill bacteria. Food can be so spicy that it burns your mouth and still cause traveler's diarrhea or more serious diseases.
- Foods that put the traveler at high risk for infection include undercooked meat or seafood and bush meat (wild game such as bats, monkeys, other jungle game).
What can I do to avoid insect bites?
- Wear light, protective clothing.
- Use insect repellents that contain DEET (most popular brand-name insect repellents in the United States contain DEET), or picaridin, IR3535, and some oil of lemon eucalyptus and para-menthane-diol products. Reapply according to directions. When using sunscreen, apply sunscreen first and then repellent.
- If you are hiking, tuck your pant legs into your sock. Check yourself over for ticks at the end of the hike including all creases, navel, and scalp. Many species bite in the nymph stage and are very small. Removing them within 24 hours prevents most infections.
- Use mosquito nets or window screens if they are available.
- Products that contain permethrin (NIX, an insect repellent) are available to spray on your clothes or tent for added protection.
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