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Reviewed by Arefa Cassoobhoy, MD, MPH
They say the research could lead to better treatment, because doctors would be able to know which tumors are more likely to grow and spread."...
Anaphylactic shock, hypersensitivity, and angioedema related to triptorelin administration have been reported. In the event of a hypersensitivity reaction, therapy with TRELSTAR should be discontinued immediately and the appropriate supportive and symptomatic care should be administered.
Transient Increase in Serum Testosterone
Initially, triptorelin, like other GnRH agonists, causes a transient increase in serum testosterone levels. As a result, isolated cases of worsening of signs and symptoms of prostate cancer during the first weeks of treatment have been reported with GnRH agonists. Patients may experience worsening of symptoms or onset of new symptoms, including bone pain, neuropathy, hematuria, or urethral or bladder outlet obstruction [see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY].
Metastatic Vertebral Lesions and Urinary Tract Obstruction
Cases of spinal cord compression, which may contribute to weakness or paralysis with or without fatal complications, have been reported with GnRH agonists. If spinal cord compression or renal impairment develops, standard treatment of these complications should be instituted, and in extreme cases an immediate orchiectomy considered.
Patients with metastatic vertebral lesions and/or with upper or lower urinary tract obstruction should be closely observed during the first few weeks of therapy.
Hyperglycemia and Diabetes
Hyperglycemia and an increased risk of developing diabetes have been reported in men receiving GnRH agonists. Hyperglycemia may represent development of diabetes mellitus or worsening of glycemic control in patients with diabetes. Monitor blood glucose and/or glycosylated hemoglobin (HbAlc) periodically in patients receiving a GnRH agonist and manage with current practice for treatment of hyperglycemia or diabetes.
Increased risk of developing myocardial infarction, sudden cardiac death and stroke has been reported in association with use of GnRH agonists in men. The risk appears low based on the reported odds ratios, and should be evaluated carefully along with cardiovascular risk factors when determining a treatment for patients with prostate cancer. Patients receiving a GnRH agonist should be monitored for symptoms and signs suggestive of development of cardiovascular disease and be managed according to current clinical practice.
Response to TRELSTAR should be monitored by measuring serum levels of testosterone periodically or as indicated.
Laboratory Test Interactions
Chronic or continuous administration of triptorelin in therapeutic doses results in suppression of pituitary-gonadal axis. Diagnostic tests of the pituitary-gonadal function conducted during treatment and after cessation of therapy may therefore be misleading.
Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility
In rats, doses of 120, 600, and 3000 meg/kg given every 28 days (approximately 0.3, 2, and 8 times the human monthly dose based on body surface area) resulted in increased mortality with a drug treatment period of 13 - 19 months. The incidences of benign and malignant pituitary tumors and histiosarcomas were increased in a dose-related manner. No oncogenic effect was observed in mice administered triptorelin for 18 months at doses up to 6000 meg/kg every 28 days (approximately 8 times the human monthly dose based on body surface area).
Mutagenicity studies performed with triptorelin using bacterial and mammalian systems (in vitro Ames test and chromosomal aberration test in CHO cells and an in vivo mouse micronucleus test) provided no evidence of mutagenic potential.
After 60 days of subcutaneous treatment followed by a minimum of four estrus cycles prior to mating, triptorelin, at doses of 2, 20, and 200 mcg/kg/day in saline (approximately 0.2, 2, and 16 times the estimated human daily dose based on body surface area) or 2 monthly injections as slow release microspheres (~20 mcg/kg/day), had no effect on the fertility or general reproductive function of female rats.
No studies were conducted to assess the effect of triptorelin on male fertility.
Use In Specific Populations
Pregnancy Category X [see 'CONTRAINDICATIONS' section].
TRELSTAR is contraindicated in women who are or may become pregnant while receiving the drug. Expected hormonal changes that occur with TRELSTAR treatment increase the risk for pregnancy loss. If this drug is used during pregnancy, or if the patient becomes pregnant while taking this drug, the patient should be apprised of the potential hazard to the fetus.
Studies in pregnant rats administered triptorelin at doses of 2, 10, and 100 mcg/kg/day (approximately equivalent to 0.2, 0.8, and 8 times the estimated human daily dose based on body surface area) during the period of organogenesis demonstrated maternal toxicity and embryo-fetal toxicities. Embryo-fetal toxicities consisted of pre-implantation loss, increased resorption, and reduced mean number of viable fetuses at the high dose. Teratogenic effects were not observed in viable fetuses in rats or mice. Doses administered to mice were 2, 20, and 200 mcg/kg/day (approximately equivalent to 0.1, 0.7, and 7 times the estimated human daily dose based on body surface area).
TRELSTAR is not indicated for use in women [see INDICATIONS]. It is not known if triptorelin is excreted in human milk. Because many drugs are excreted in human milk, and because of the potential for serious adverse reactions in nursing infants from TRELSTAR, a decision should be made to either discontinue nursing, or discontinue the drug taking into account the importance of the drug to the mother.
Safety and effectiveness in pediatric patients have not been established.
Subjects with renal impairment had higher exposure than young healthy males [see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY].
Subjects with hepatic impairment had higher exposure than young healthy males [see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY].This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.
Last reviewed on RxList: 6/30/2011
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