"Jan. 23, 2013 -- Worrying about what may trigger a migraine attack adds to the discomfort of many people with migraines. But according to a new study from Denmark, much of that worry may be unfounded.
The researchers studied the effect of l"...
Cardiovascular Thrombotic Events
The use of TREXIMET is contraindicated in patients with ischemic or vasospastic coronary artery disease (CAD) and in the setting of coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery due to increased risk of serious cardiovascular events with sumatriptan and NSAIDS [see CONTRAINDICATIONS].
Cardiovascular Events With Sumatriptan
There have been rare reports of serious cardiac adverse reactions, including acute myocardial infarction, occurring within a few hours following administration of sumatriptan. Some of these reactions occurred in patients without known CAD. TREXIMET may cause coronary artery vasospasm (Prinzmetal's angina), even in patients without a history of CAD.
Cardiovascular Thrombotic Events With Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs
Clinical trials of several COX-2 selective and nonselective NSAIDs of up to three years duration have shown an increased risk of serious cardiovascular (CV) thrombotic events, including myocardial infarction (MI) and stroke, which can be fatal. Based on available data, it is unclear that the risk for CV thrombotic events is similar for all NSAIDs. The relative increase in serious CV thrombotic events over baseline conferred by NSAID use appears to be similar in those with and without known CV disease or risk factors for CV disease. However, patients with known CV disease or risk factors had a higher absolute incidence of excess serious CV thrombotic events, due to their increased baseline rate. Some observational studies found that this increased risk of serious CV thrombotic events began as early as the first weeks of treatment. The increase in CV thrombotic risk has been observed most consistently at higher doses.
To minimize the potential risk for an adverse CV event in NSAID-treated patients, use the lowest effective dose for the shortest duration possible. Physicians and patients should remain alert for the development of such events, throughout the entire treatment course, even in the absence of previous CV symptoms. Patients should be informed about the symptoms of serious CV events and the steps to take if they occur.
There is no consistent evidence that concurrent use of aspirin mitigates the increased risk of serious CV thrombotic events associated with NSAID use. The concurrent use of aspirin and an NSAID, such as naproxen, increases the risk of serious gastrointestinal (GI) events [see Gastrointestinal Bleeding, Ulceration, and Perforation].
Status Post Coronary Artery Bypass Graft (CABG) Surgery
Two large, controlled clinical trials of a COX-2 selective NSAID for the treatment of pain in the first 10–14 days following CABG surgery found an increased incidence of myocardial infarction and stroke. NSAIDs are contraindicated in the setting of CABG [see CONTRAINDICATIONS].
Observational studies conducted in the Danish National Registry have demonstrated that patients treated with NSAIDs in the post-MI period were at increased risk of reinfarction, CV-related death, and all-cause mortality beginning in the first week of treatment. In this same cohort, the incidence of death in the first year post-MI was 20 per 100 person years in NSAID-treated patients compared to 12 per 100 person years in non-NSAID exposed patients. Although the absolute rate of death declined somewhat after the first year post-MI, the increased relative risk of death in NSAID users persisted over at least the next four years of follow-up.
Perform a cardiovascular evaluation in patients who have multiple cardiovascular risk factors (e.g., increased age, diabetes, hypertension, smoking, obesity, strong family history of CAD) prior to receiving TREXIMET. If there is evidence of CAD or coronary artery vasospasm, TREXIMET is contraindicated. For patients with multiple cardiovascular risk factors who have a negative cardiovascular evaluation, consider administering the first dose of TREXIMET in a medically supervised setting and performing an electrocardiogram (ECG) immediately following administration of TREXIMET. For such patients, consider periodic cardiovascular evaluation in intermittent long-term users of TREXIMET.
Physicians and patients should remain alert for the development of cardiovascular events, even in the absence of previous cardiovascular symptoms. Patients should be informed about the signs and/or symptoms of serious cardiovascular events and the steps to take if they occur.
Gastrointestinal Bleeding, Ulceration, And Perforation
NSAIDs, including naproxen, a component of TREXIMET, cause serious gastrointestinal adverse events including inflammation, bleeding, ulceration, and perforation of the stomach, small intestine, or large intestine, which can be fatal. These serious adverse events can occur at any time, with or without warning symptoms, in patients treated with NSAIDs. Only 1 in 5 patients who develop a serious upper gastrointestinal adverse event on NSAID therapy is symptomatic. Upper gastrointestinal ulcers, gross bleeding, or perforation caused by NSAIDs appear to occur in approximately 1% of patients treated daily for 3 to 6 months and in about 2% to 4% of patients treated for 1 year. However, even short-term therapy is not without risk.
Among 3,302 adult patients with migraine who received TREXIMET in controlled and uncontrolled clinical trials, 1 patient experienced a recurrence of gastric ulcer after taking 8 doses over 3 weeks, and 1 patient developed a gastric ulcer after treating an average of 8 attacks per month over 7 months.
Risk Factors For GI Bleeding, Ulceration, And Perforation
Patients with a prior history of peptic ulcer disease and/or gastrointestinal bleeding who use NSAIDs have a greater than 10-fold increased risk for developing gastrointestinal bleeding compared with patients with neither of these risk factors. Other factors that increase the risk for gastrointestinal bleeding in patients treated with NSAIDs include longer duration of NSAID therapy; concomitant use of oral corticosteroids, aspirin, anticoagulants, or selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs); smoking; use of alcohol; older age; and poor general health status. Most postmarketing reports of fatal gastrointestinal events occurred in elderly or debilitated patients, and therefore special care should be taken in treating this population. Additionally, patients with advanced liver disease and/or coagulopathy are at increased risk for GI bleeding.
Strategies to Minimize the GI Risks in NSAID-treated patients:
- Use the lowest effective dosage for the shortest possible duration.
- Avoid administration of more than one NSAID at a time.
- Avoid use in patients at higher risk unless benefits are expected to outweigh the increased risk of bleeding. For high risk patients, as well as those with active GI bleeding, consider alternate therapies other than NSAIDs.
- Remain alert for signs and symptoms of GI ulceration and bleeding during NSAID therapy.
- If a serious GI adverse event is suspected, promptly initiate evaluation and treatment, and discontinue TREXIMET until a serious GI adverse event is ruled out.
- In the setting of concomitant use of low-dose aspirin for cardiac prophylaxis, monitor patients more closely for evidence of GI bleeding [see DRUG INTERACTIONS].
Life-threatening disturbances of cardiac rhythm, including ventricular tachycardia and ventricular fibrillation leading to death, have been reported within a few hours following the administration of 5-HT1 agonists. Discontinue TREXIMET if these disturbances occur.
TREXIMET is contraindicated in patients with Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome or arrhythmias associated with other cardiac accessory conduction pathway disorders.
Chest, Throat, Neck, And/Or Jaw Pain/Tightness/Pressure
Sensations of tightness, pain, pressure, and heaviness in the precordium, throat, neck, and jaw commonly occur after treatment with sumatriptan and are usually non-cardiac in origin. However, perform a cardiac evaluation if these patients are at high cardiac risk. The use of TREXIMET is contraindicated in patients with CAD and those with Prinzmetal's variant angina.
Cerebral hemorrhage, subarachnoid hemorrhage, and stroke have occurred in patients treated with 5-HT1 agonists, and some have resulted in fatalities. In a number of cases, it appears possible that the cerebrovascular events were primary, the 5-HT1 agonist having been administered in the incorrect belief that the symptoms experienced were a consequence of migraine when they were not. Also, patients with migraine may be at increased risk of certain cerebrovascular events (e.g., stroke, hemorrhage, TIA). Discontinue TREXIMET if a cerebrovascular event occurs.
Before treating headaches in patients not previously diagnosed as migraineurs, and in migraineurs who present with atypical symptoms, exclude other potentially serious neurological conditions. TREXIMET is contraindicated in patients with a history of stroke or TIA [see CONTRAINDICATIONS].
Other Vasospasm Reactions
Sumatriptan may cause non-coronary vasospastic reactions, such as peripheral vascular ischemia, gastrointestinal vascular ischemia and infarction (presenting with abdominal pain and bloody diarrhea), splenic infarction, and Raynaud's syndrome. In patients who experience symptoms or signs suggestive of non-coronary vasospasm reaction following the use of any 5-HT1 agonist, rule out a vasospastic reaction before receiving additional TREXIMET.
Reports of transient and permanent blindness and significant partial vision loss have been reported with the use of 5-HT1 agonists. Since visual disorders may be part of a migraine attack, a causal relationship between these events and the use of 5-HT1 agonists have not been clearly established.
Borderline elevations of 1 or more liver tests may occur in up to 15% of patients who take NSAIDs including naproxen, a component of TREXIMET. Hepatic abnormalities may be the result of hypersensitivity rather than direct toxicity. These abnormalities may progress, may remain essentially unchanged, or may be transient with continued therapy. Notable (3 times the upper limit of normal) elevations of SGPT (ALT) or SGOT (AST) have been reported in approximately 1% of patients in clinical trials with NSAIDs. In addition, rare, sometimes fatal cases of severe hepatic injury, including jaundice and fatal fulminant hepatitis, liver necrosis, and hepatic failure have been reported with NSAIDs.
TREXIMET is contraindicated in patients with severe hepatic impairment [see Use in Specific Populations, CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY]. A patient with symptoms and/or signs suggesting liver dysfunction, or in whom an abnormal liver test has occurred, should be evaluated for evidence of the development of a more severe hepatic reaction while on therapy with TREXIMET. TREXIMET should be discontinued if clinical signs and symptoms consistent with liver disease develop, if systemic manifestations occur (e.g., eosinophilia, rash), or if abnormal liver tests persist or worsen.
Inform patients of the warning signs and symptoms of hepatotoxicity (e.g., nausea, fatigue, lethargy, diarrhea, pruritus, jaundice, right upper quadrant tenderness, and “flulike” symptoms). If clinical signs and symptoms consistent with liver disease develop, or if systemic manifestations occur (e.g., eosinophilia, rash, etc.), discontinue TREXIMET immediately, and perform a clinical evaluation of the patient.
Significant elevation in blood pressure, including hypertensive crisis with acute impairment of organ systems, has been reported on rare occasions in patients treated with 5-HT1 agonists, including sumatriptan, a component of TREXIMET. This occurrence has included patients without a history of hypertension.
NSAIDs, including naproxen, a component of TREXIMET, can also lead to onset of new hypertension or worsening of preexisting hypertension, either of which may contribute to the increased incidence of cardiovascular events. Patients taking angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs), beta-blockers, thiazide diuretics, or loop diuretics may have impaired response to these therapies when taking NSAIDs [see DRUG INTERACTIONS].
Monitor blood pressure in patients treated with TREXIMET. TREXIMET is contraindicated in patients with uncontrolled hypertension [see CONTRAINDICATIONS].
Heart Failure And Edema
The Coxib and traditional NSAID Trialists' Collaboration meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials demonstrated an approximately two-fold increase in hospitalizations for heart failure in COX-2 selective-treated patients and nonselective NSAID-treated patients compared to placebo-treated patients. In a Danish National Registry study of patients with heart failure, NSAID use increased the risk of MI, hospitalization for heart failure, and death.
Additionally, fluid retention and edema have been observed in some patients treated with NSAIDs. Use of naproxen may blunt the CV effects of several therapeutic agents used to treat these medical conditions (e.g., diuretics, ACE inhibitors, or angiotensin receptor blockers [ARBs]) [see DRUG INTERACTIONS].
Avoid the use of TREXIMET in patients with severe heart failure unless the benefits are expected to outweigh the risk of worsening heart failure. If TREXIMET is used in patients with severe heart failure, monitor patients for signs of worsening heart failure.
Since each TREXIMET 85/500 mg tablet contains approximately 60 mg of sodium and each TREXIMET 10/60 mg tablet contains approximately 20 mg of sodium, this should be considered in patients whose overall intake of sodium must be severely restricted.
Medication Overuse Headache
Overuse of acute migraine drugs (e.g., ergotamine, triptans, opioids, or a combination of these drugs for 10 or more days per month) may lead to exacerbation of headache (medication overuse headache). Medication overuse headache may present as migraine-like daily headaches, or as a marked increase in frequency of migraine attacks. Detoxification of patients, including withdrawal of the overused drugs, and treatment of withdrawal symptoms (which often includes a transient worsening of headache) may be necessary.
Serotonin syndrome may occur with TREXIMET, particularly during coadministration with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs), tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs), and MAO inhibitors [see CONTRAINDICATIONS and DRUG INTERACTIONS]. Serotonin syndrome symptoms may include mental status changes (e.g., agitation, hallucinations, coma), autonomic instability (e.g., tachycardia, labile blood pressure, hyperthermia), neuromuscular aberrations (e.g., hyperreflexia, incoordination), and/or gastrointestinal symptoms (e.g., nausea, vomiting, diarrhea). The onset of symptoms usually occurs within minutes to hours of receiving a new or a greater dose of a serotonergic medication. Discontinue TREXIMET if serotonin syndrome is suspected.
Renal Toxicity And Hyperkalemia
Renal Toxicity Long-term administration of NSAIDs has resulted in renal papillary necrosis and other renal injury. Renal toxicity has also been seen in patients in whom renal prostaglandins have a compensatory role in the maintenance of renal perfusion. In these patients administration of an NSAID may cause a dose-dependent reduction in prostaglandin formation and, secondarily, in renal blood flow, which may precipitate overt renal decompensation. Patients at greatest risk of this reaction are those with impaired renal function, dehydration, hypovolemia, heart failure, liver dysfunction, salt depletion, those taking diuretics and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors or ARBs, and the elderly. Discontinuation of NSAID therapy is usually followed by recovery to the pretreatment state.
TREXIMET should be discontinued if clinical signs and symptoms consistent with renal disease develop or if systemic manifestations occur.
TREXIMET is not recommended for use in patients with severe renal impairment (creatinine clearance [CrCl] < 30 mL/min) unless the benefits are expected to outweigh the risk of worsening renal function [see Use in Specific Populations, CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY]. If TREXIMET is used in patients with advanced renal disease, monitor patients for signs of worsening renal function. Monitor renal function in patients with mild (CrCl = 60 to 89 mL/min) or moderate (CrCl = 30 to 59 mL/min) renal impairment, preexisting kidney disease, or dehydration.
The renal effects of TREXIMET may hasten the progression of renal dysfunction in patients with pre-existing renal disease.
Correct volume status in dehydrated or hypovolemic patients prior to initiating TREXIMET. Monitor renal function in patients with renal or hepatic impairment, heart failure, dehydration, or hypovolemia during use of TREXIMET [see DRUG INTERACTIONS]. Avoid the use of TREXIMET in patients with advanced renal disease unless the benefits are expected to outweigh the risk of worsening renal function. If TREXIMET is used in patients with advanced renal disease, monitor patients for signs of worsening renal function.
Increases in serum potassium concentration, including hyperkalemia, have been reported with the use of NSAIDs, even in some patients without renal impairment. In patients with normal renal function, these effects have been attributed to a hyporeninemichypoaldosteronism state.
Anaphylactic reactions may occur in patients without known prior exposure to either component of TREXIMET. Such reactions can be life-threatening or fatal. In general, anaphylactic reactions to drugs are more likely to occur in individuals with a history of sensitivity to multiple allergens although anaphylactic reactions with naproxen have occurred in patient without known hypersensitivity to naproxen or to patients with aspirin sensitive asthma [see CONTRAINDICATIONS and Exacerbation Of Asthma Related To Aspirin Sensitivity]. TREXIMET should not be given to patients with the aspirin triad. This symptom complex typically occurs in patients with asthma who experience rhinitis with or without nasal polyps, or who exhibit severe, potentially fatal bronchospasm after taking aspirin or other NSAIDs [see CONTRAINDICATIONS].
TREXIMET is contraindicated in patients with a history of hypersensitivity reaction to sumatriptan, naproxen, or any other component of TREXIMET. Naproxen has been associated with anaphylactic reactions in patients without known hypersensitivity to naproxen and in patients with aspirin-sensitive asthma [see CONTRAINDICATIONS and Exacerbation Of Asthma Related To Aspirin Sensitivity]. Seek emergency help if an anaphylactic reaction occurs.
Serious Skin Reactions
NSAID-containing products can cause serious skin adverse reactions such as exfoliative dermatitis, Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS), and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN), which can be fatal. These serious events may occur without warning. Inform patients about the signs and symptoms of serious skin reactions and to discontinue the use of TREXIMET at the first appearance of skin rash or any other sign of hypersensitivity. TREXIMET is contraindicated in patients with previous serious skin reactions to NSAIDs [see CONTRAINDICATIONS].
Premature Closure Of The Ductus Arteriosus
TREXIMET may cause premature closure of the ductus arteriosus. Avoid use of NSAIDs, including TREXIMET, in pregnant women starting at 30 weeks of gestation (third trimester) [see CONTRAINDICATIONS, Use in Specific Populations].
Anemia has occurred in patients receiving NSAIDs. This may be due to fluid retention, occult or gross gastrointestinal blood loss, or an incompletely described effect upon erythropoiesis. If a patient treated with TREXIMET has signs or symptoms of anemia, monitor hemoglobin or hematocrit.
NSAIDs, including TREXIMET, may increase the risk of bleeding events. Co-morbid conditions such as coagulation disorders or concomitant use of warfarin, other anticoagulants, antiplatelet agents (e.g., aspirin), serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), and serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) may increase this risk. Monitor these patients for signs of bleeding [see DRUG INTERACTIONS].
Exacerbation Of Asthma Related To Aspirin Sensitivity
A subpopulation of patients with asthma may have aspirin-sensitive asthma which may include chronic rhinosinusitis complicated by nasal polyps; severe, potentially fatal bronchospasm; and/or intolerance to aspirin and other NSAIDs. Because cross-reactivity between aspirin and other NSAIDs has been reported in such aspirin-sensitive patients, TREXIMET is contraindicated in patients with this form of aspirin sensitivity and should be used with caution in patients with preexisting asthma [see CONTRAINDICATIONS].
When TREXIMET is used in patients with preexisting asthma (without known aspirin sensitivity), monitor patients for changes in the signs and symptoms of asthma.
Seizures have been reported following administration of sumatriptan. Some have occurred in patients with either a history of seizures or concurrent conditions predisposing to seizures. There are also reports in patients where no such predisposing factors are apparent. TREXIMET should be used with caution in patients with a history of epilepsy or conditions associated with a lowered seizure threshold.
Masking Of Inflammation And Fever
The pharmacological activity of TREXIMET in reducing inflammation, and possibly fever, may diminish the utility of diagnostic signs in detecting infections.
Because serious GI bleeding, hepatotoxicity, and renal injury can occur without warning symptoms or signs, consider monitoring patients on long-term NSAID treatment with a CBC and a chemistry profile periodically.
Patient Counseling Information
Advise the patient to read the FDA-approved patient labeling (Medication Guide) that accompanies each prescription dispensed. Inform patients, families, or their caregivers of the following information before initiating therapy with TREXIMET and periodically during the course of ongoing therapy.
Cardiovascular Thrombotic Events, Prinzmetal's Angina, Other Vasospasm-Related Events, Arrhythmias And Cerebrovascular Events
Advise patients to be alert for the symptoms of cardiovascular thrombotic effects such as myocardial infarction or stroke, which may result in hospitalization and even death. Although serious cardiovascular events can occur without warning symptoms, patients should be alert for signs and symptoms of chest pain, shortness of breath, weakness, irregular heartbeat, significant rise in blood pressure, weakness and slurring of speech, and should be advised to report any of these symptoms to their health care provider immediately. Apprise patients of the importance of this follow-up [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
Gastrointestinal Bleeding, Ulceration, And Perforation
Advise patients to report symptoms of ulcerations and bleeding, including epigastric pain, dyspepsia, melena, and hematemesis to their health care provider. In the setting of concomitant use of low-dose aspirin for cardiac prophylaxis, inform patients of the increased risk for and the signs and symptoms of GI bleeding [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
Inform patients of the warning signs and symptoms of hepatotoxicity (e.g., nausea, fatigue, lethargy, pruritus, diarrhea, jaundice, right upper quadrant tenderness, and “flu-like” symptoms). If these occur, instruct patients to stop TREXIMET and seek immediate medical therapy [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
Inform patients that anaphylactic reactions have occurred in patients receiving the components of TREXIMET. Such reactions can be life-threatening or fatal. In general, anaphylactic reactions to drugs are more likely to occur in individuals with a history of sensitivity to multiple allergens. Inform patients of the signs of an anaphylactic reaction (e.g., difficulty breathing, swelling of the face or throat). If these occur, patients should be instructed to seek immediate emergency help [see CONTRAINDICATIONS, WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
Serious Skin Reactions
Inform patients that TREXIMET, like other NSAID-containing products, may increase the risk of serious skin side effects such as exfoliative dermatitis, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, and toxic epidermal necrolysis, which may result in hospitalizations and even death. Although serious skin reactions may occur without warning, patients should be alert for the signs and symptoms of skin rash and blisters, fever, or other signs of hypersensitivity such as itching and should ask for medical advice when observing any indicative signs or symptoms. Advise patients to stop the drug immediately if they develop any type of rash and contact their healthcare providers as soon as possible [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
Inform patients that TREXIMET should not be used during the third trimester of pregnancy because NSAID-containing products have been shown to cause premature closure of the ductus arteriosus. Inform patients that TREXIMET should be used during the first and second trimester of pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus [see CONTRAINDICATIONS, WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS, Use in Specific Populations].
Advise patients to notify their healthcare provider if they are breastfeeding or plan to breastfeed [see Use in Specific Populations].
Heart Failure And Edema
Advise patients to be alert for the symptoms of congestive heart failure including shortness of breath, unexplained weight gain, or edema and to contact their healthcare provider if such symptoms occur [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].Anaphylactic Reactions Inform patients of the signs of an anaphylactic reaction (e.g., difficulty breathing, swelling of the face or throat). Instruct patients to seek immediate emergency help if these occur [see CONTRAINDICATIONS and WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
Concomitant Use With Other Triptans Or Ergot Medications
Inform patients that use of TREXIMET within 24 hours of another triptan or an ergot-type medication (including dihydroergotamine or methysergide) is contraindicated [see CONTRAINDICATIONS, DRUG INTERACTIONS].
Caution patients about the risk of serotonin syndrome with the use of TREXIMET or other triptans, particularly during concomitant use with SSRIs, SNRIs, TCAs, and MAO inhibitors [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS, DRUG INTERACTIONS].
Medication Overuse Headache
Inform patients that use of acute migraine drugs for 10 or more days per month may lead to an exacerbation of headache and encourage patients to record headache frequency and drug use (e.g., by keeping a headache diary) [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
Ability To Perform Complex Tasks
Advise patients with preexisting asthma to seek immediate medical attention if their asthma worsens after taking TREXIMET. Patients with a history of aspirin-sensitive asthma should not take TREXIMET [see CONTRAINDICATIONS, WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
Avoid Concomitant Use Of NSAIDs
Inform patients that the concomitant use of TREXIMET with other NSAIDs or salicylates (e.g., diflunisal, salsalate) is not recommended due to the increased risk of gastrointestinal toxicity, and little or no increase in efficacy [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS and DRUG INTERACTIONS]. Alert patients that NSAIDs may be present in “over the counter” medications for treatment of colds, fever, or insomnia.
Use Of NSAIDS And Low-Dose Aspirin
Inform patients not to use low-dose aspirin concomitantly with TREXIMET until they talk to their healthcare provider [see DRUG INTERACTIONS].
Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment Of Fertility
The carcinogenic potential of TREXIMET has not been studied.
In carcinogenicity studies in mouse and rat, sumatriptan was administered orally for 78 and 104 weeks, respectively, at doses up to 160 mg/kg/day. The highest doses tested are approximately 5 (mouse) and 9 (rat) times the maximum human daily dose (MHDD) of 170 mg sumatriptan on a mg/m² basis (two tablets of TREXIMET 85/500 mg in a 24-hour period).
The carcinogenic potential of naproxen was evaluated in a 2-year oral carcinogenicity study in rats at doses of 8, 16, and 24 mg/kg/day and in another 2-year oral carcinogenicity study in rats at a dose of 8 mg/kg/day. No evidence of tumorigenicity was found in either study. The highest dose tested is less than the MHDD (1000 mg) of naproxen, on a mg/m² basis.
Sumatriptan and naproxen sodium tested alone and in combination were negative in an in vitro bacterial reverse mutation assay, and in an in vivo micronucleus assay in mice.
The combination of sumatriptan and naproxen sodium was negative in an in vitro mouse lymphoma tk assay in the presence and absence of metabolic activation. However, in separate in vitro mouse lymphoma tk assays, naproxen sodium alone was reproducibly positive in the presence of metabolic activation.
Naproxen sodium alone and in combination with sumatriptan was positive in an in vitro clastogenicity assay in mammalian cells in the presence and absence of metabolic activation. The clastogenic effect for the combination was reproducible within this assay and was greater than observed with naproxen sodium alone. Sumatriptan alone was negative in these assays.
Chromosomal aberrations were not induced in peripheral blood lymphocytes following 7 days of twice-daily dosing with TREXIMET in human volunteers.
In previous studies, sumatriptan alone was negative in in vitro (bacterial reverse mutation [Ames], gene cell mutation in Chinese hamster V79/HGPRT, chromosomal aberration in human lymphocytes) and in vivo (rat micronucleus) assays.
Impairment Of Fertility
The effect of TREXIMET on fertility in animals has not been studied.
When sumatriptan (5, 50, 500 mg/kg/day) was administered orally to male and female rats prior to and throughout the mating period, there was a drug-related decrease in fertility secondary to a decrease in mating in animals treated with doses greater than 5 mg/kg/day (less than the MHDD of 170 mg on a mg/m² basis). It is not clear whether this finding was due to an effect on males or females or both.
Use In Specific Populations
Pregnancy Category C during the first two trimesters of pregnancy; Category X during the third trimester of pregnancy. There are no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women. TREXIMET (sumatriptan and naproxen) should be used during the first and second trimester of pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus. TREXIMET should not be used during the third trimester of pregnancy because inhibitors of prostaglandin synthesis (including naproxen) are known to cause premature closure of the ductus arteriosus in humans. In animal studies, administration of sumatriptan and naproxen, alone or in combination, during pregnancy resulted in developmental toxicity (increased incidences of fetal malformations, embryofetal and pup mortality, decreased embryofetal growth) at clinically relevant doses.
Oral administration of sumatriptan combined with naproxen sodium (5/9, 25/45, or 50/90 mg/kg/day sumatriptan/naproxen sodium) or each drug alone (50/0 or 0/90 mg/kg/day sumatriptan/naproxen sodium) to pregnant rabbits during the period of organogenesis resulted in increased total incidences of fetal abnormalities at all doses and increased incidences of specific malformations (cardiac interventricular septal defect in the 50/90 mg/kg/day group, fused caudal vertebrae in the 50/0 and 0/90 mg/kg/day groups) and variations (absent intermediate lobe of the lung, irregular ossification of the skull, incompletely ossified sternal centra) at the highest dose of sumatriptan and naproxen alone and in combination. A no-effect dose for developmental toxicity in rabbits was not established. The lowest effect dose was 5/9 mg/kg/day sumatriptan/naproxen sodium, which was associated with plasma exposures (AUC) to sumatriptan and naproxen that were less than those attained at the maximum human daily dose (MHDD) of 170 mg sumatriptan and 1000 mg naproxen sodium (two tablets of TREXIMET 85/500 mg in a 24-hour period).
In previous developmental toxicity studies of sumatriptan, oral administration to pregnant rats during the period of organogenesis resulted in an increased incidence of fetal blood vessel abnormalities and decreased pup survival at doses of 250 mg/kg/day or higher. The highest no-effect dose was 60 mg/kg/day, which is approximately 3 times the MHDD of 170 mg sumatriptan on a mg/m² basis. Oral administration of sumatriptan to pregnant rabbits during the period of organogenesis resulted in increased incidences of vascular and skeletal abnormalities at a dose of 50 mg/kg/day and embryolethality at 100 mg/kg/day. The highest no-effect dose of sumatriptan for developmental toxicity in rabbits was 15 mg/kg/day, or approximately 2 times the MHDD of 170 mg sumatriptan on a mg/m² basis.
Labor And Delivery
Naproxen-containing products are not recommended in labor and delivery because, through its prostaglandin synthesis inhibitory effect, naproxen may adversely affect fetal circulation and inhibit uterine contractions, thus increasing the risk of uterine hemorrhage. In rat studies with NSAIDs, as with other drugs known to inhibit prostaglandin synthesis, an increased incidence of dystocia, delayed parturition, and decreased pup survival occurred.
Both active components of TREXIMET, sumatriptan and naproxen, have been reported to be secreted in human milk. Because of the potential for serious adverse reactions in nursing infants from TREXIMET, a decision should be made whether to discontinue nursing or to discontinue the drug, taking into account the importance of the drug to the mother.
Safety and effectiveness of TREXIMET in pediatric patients under 12 years of age have not been established.
The safety and efficacy of TREXIMET for the acute treatment of migraine in pediatric patients 12 to 17 years of age was established in a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial [see ADVERSE REACTIONS and Clinical Studies].
Elderly patients, compared to younger patients, are at greater risk for NSAID-associated serious cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, and/or renal adverse reactions. TREXIMET is not recommended for use in elderly patients who have decreased renal function, higher risk for unrecognized CAD, and increases in blood pressure that may be more pronounced in the elderly [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS and CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY].
A cardiovascular evaluation is recommended for geriatric patients who have other cardiovascular risk factors (e.g., diabetes, hypertension, smoking, obesity, strong family history of CAD) prior to receiving TREXIMET [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
TREXIMET is not recommended for use in patients with creatinine clearance less than 30 mL/min. Monitor the serum creatinine or creatinine clearance in patients with mild (CrCl = 60 to 89 mL/min) or moderate (CrCL = 30 to 59 mL/min) renal impairment, preexisting kidney disease, or dehydration [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS and CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY].
TREXIMET is contraindicated in patients with severe hepatic impairment. For patients with mild or moderate hepatic impairment, the TREXIMET dose should be reduced. [see CONTRAINDICATIONS, WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS, and CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY].This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.
Last reviewed on RxList: 5/25/2016
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