"Nov. 1, 2012 -- Having even mildly elevated blood pressure at midlife prematurely ages the brain, a new study shows.
Researchers say the early changes seen with higher blood pressure may set the stage for problems with thinking, memor"...
Pregnancy Category D
Use of drugs that act on the renin-angiotensin system during the second and third trimesters of pregnancy reduces fetal renal function and increases fetal and neonatal morbidity and death. Resulting oligohydramnios can be associated with fetal lung hypoplasia and skeletal deformations. Potential neonatal adverse effects include skull hypoplasia, anuria, hypotension, renal failure, and death. When pregnancy is detected, discontinue Tribenzor as soon as possible [see Use In Specific Populations].
Hypotension In Volume-Or Salt-Depleted Patients
Symptomatic hypotension may be anticipated after initiation of treatment with olmesartan medoxomil. Patients with an activated renin-angiotensin system, such as volume-and/or salt-depleted patients (e.g., those being treated with high doses of diuretics) may be particularly vulnerable. Initiate treatment with Tribenzor under close medical supervision. If hypotension does occur, place the patient in the supine position and, if necessary, give an intravenous infusion of normal saline. A transient hypotensive response is not a contraindication to further treatment, which usually can be continued without difficulty once the blood pressure has stabilized.
Increased Angina And/Or Myocardial Infarction
Patients, particularly those with severe obstructive coronary artery disease, may develop increased frequency, duration, or severity of angina or acute myocardial infarction upon starting calcium channel blocker therapy or at the time of dosage increase. The mechanism of this effect has not been elucidated.
Impaired Renal Function
Tribenzor has not been studied in patients with impaired renal function. Avoid use in patients with severe renal impairment (creatinine clearance ≤ 30 ml/min) [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION].
An adverse event of impaired renal function was reported in 2.1% of subjects receiving Tribenzor compared to 0.2% to 1.3% of subjects receiving dual combination therapy.
Changes in renal function occur in some individuals treated with olmesartan medoxomil as a consequence of inhibiting the renin-angiotensinaldosterone system. In patients whose renal function may depend upon the activity of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (e.g., patients with severe congestive heart failure), treatment with ACE inhibitors and angiotensin receptor antagonists has been associated with oliguria or progressive azotemia and (rarely) with acute renal failure and/or death. Similar effects may occur in patients treated with Tribenzor due to the olmesartan medoxomil component [see DRUG INTERACTIONS and CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY].
In studies of ACE inhibitors in patients with unilateral or bilateral renal artery stenosis, increases in serum creatinine or blood urea nitrogen (BUN) have been reported. There has been no long-term use of olmesartan medoxomil in patients with unilateral or bilateral renal artery stenosis, but similar effects would be expected with Tribenzor because of the olmesartan medoxomil component.
Thiazides may precipitate azotemia in patients with renal disease. Cumulative effects of the drug may develop in patients with impaired renal function.
Amlodipine is extensively metabolized by the liver and the plasma elimination half-life (t½) is 56 hours in patients with severely impaired hepatic function [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION].
Minor alterations of fluid and electrolyte balance may precipitate hepatic coma.
Electrolyte And Metabolic Imbalances
Perform periodic determinations of serum electrolytes to detect possible electrolyte imbalance. Observe patients receiving thiazide therapy for clinical signs of fluid or electrolyte imbalance: hyponatremia, hypochloremic alkalosis, and hypokalemia. Serum and urine electrolyte determinations are important when the patient is vomiting excessively or receiving parental fluids. Warning signs or symptoms of fluid and electrolyte imbalance, irrespective of cause, include dryness of mouth, thirst, weakness, lethargy, drowsiness, restlessness, confusion, seizures, muscle pains or cramps, muscular fatigue, hypotension, oliguria, tachycardia, and gastrointestinal disturbances such as nausea and vomiting.
Interference with adequate oral electrolyte intake will also contribute to hypokalemia. Hypokalemia may cause cardiac arrhythmia and may also sensitize or exaggerate the response of the heart to the toxic effects of digitalis (e.g., increased ventricular irritability).
Metabolic acidosis may occur. Although a chloride deficit in a particular patient is generally mild and usually does not require specific treatment, except under extraordinary circumstances (as in liver disease or renal disease), chloride replacement may be required in the treatment of metabolic alkalosis.
Dilutional hyponatremia may occur in edematous patients in hot weather; appropriate therapy is water restriction, rather than administration of salt, except in rare instances when the hyponatremia is life-threatening. In actual salt depletion, appropriate replacement is the therapy of choice.
In diabetic patients dosage adjustments of insulin or oral hypoglycemic agents may be required. Hyperglycemia may occur with thiazide diuretics. Thus, latent diabetes mellitus may become manifest during thiazide therapy.
The antihypertensive effects of the drug may be enhanced in the post-sympathectomy patient.
Thiazides have been shown to increase the urinary excretion of magnesium; this may result in hypomagnesemia.
Thiazides may decrease urinary calcium excretion. Thiazides may cause intermittent and slight elevation of serum calcium in the absence of known disorders of calcium metabolism. Marked hypercalcemia may be evidence of hyperparathyroidism. Tribenzor should be discontinued before carrying out tests for parathyroid function.
Systemic Lupus Erythematosus
Thiazide diuretics have been reported to cause exacerbation or activation of systemic lupus erythematosus.
Acute Myopia And Secondary Angle-Closure Glaucoma
Hydrochlorothiazide, a sulfonamide, can cause an idiosyncratic reaction, resulting in acute transient myopia and acute angle-closure glaucoma. Symptoms include acute onset of decreased visual acuity or ocular pain and typically occur within hours to weeks of drug initiation. Untreated acute angle-closure glaucoma can lead to permanent vision loss. The primary treatment is to discontinue hydrochlorothiazide as rapidly as possible. Prompt medical or surgical treatments may need to be considered if the intraocular pressure remains uncontrolled. Risk factors for developing acute angle-closure glaucoma may include a history of sulfonamide or penicillin allergy.
Severe, chronic diarrhea with substantial weight loss has been reported in patients taking olmesartan months to years after drug initiation. Intestinal biopsies of patients often demonstrated villous atrophy. If a patient develops these symptoms during treatment with olmesartan, exclude other etiologies. Consider discontinuation of Tribenzor in cases where no other etiology is identified.
Although vasodilation attributable to amlodipine is generally gradual in onset, acute hypotension has rarely been reported after oral administration. Patients with severe aortic stenosis may be at particular risk.
Tribenzor has not been studied in patients with heart failure.
Amlodipine (5-10 mg per day) has been studied in a placebo-controlled trial of 1153 patients with New York Heart Association (NYHA) Class III or IV heart failure on stable doses of ACE inhibitor, digoxin, and diuretics. Follow-up was at least 6 months, with a mean of about 14 months. There was no overall adverse effect on survival or cardiac morbidity (as defined by life-threatening arrhythmia, acute myocardial infarction, or hospitalization for worsened heart failure). Amlodipine has been compared to placebo in four 8-12 week studies of patients with NYHA Class II/III heart failure, involving a total of 697 patients. In these studies, there was no evidence of worsening of heart failure based on measures of exercise tolerance, NYHA classification, symptoms, or left ventricular ejection fraction.
In post-marketing experience, increased blood creatinine levels and hyperkalemia have been reported.
In post-marketing experience, hepatic enzyme elevations have been reported [see ADVERSE REACTIONS].
Increases in cholesterol and triglyceride levels may be associated with thiazide diuretic therapy.
Patient Counseling Information
See FDA-Approved Patient Labeling
Female patients of childbearing age should be told about the consequences of exposure to Tribenzor during pregnancy. Discuss treatment options with women planning to become pregnant. Patients should be asked to report pregnancies to their physicians as soon as possible.
A patient receiving Tribenzor should be cautioned that lightheadedness can occur, especially during the first days of therapy, and that it should be reported to the prescribing physician. Tell patients that if syncope occurs, Tribenzor should be discontinued until the physician has been consulted.
Caution patients that inadequate fluid intake, excessive perspiration, diarrhea, or vomiting can lead to an excessive fall in blood pressure, with the same consequences of lightheadedness and possible syncope [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
The rationale for no or limited new toxicity from the triple combination of olmesartan medoxomil, amlodipine, and hydrochlorothiazide has already been established on the basis of the safety profile of the individual compounds or the dual combinations. To clarify the toxicological profile for Tribenzor, a 3-month repeated dose toxicity study was conducted in rats, and the results demonstrated that the combined administration of olmesartan medoxomil, amlodipine, and hydrochlorothiazide neither augment any existing toxicities of the individual agents nor induce any new toxicities and there were no toxicologically synergistic effects observed in the study.
Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment Of Fertility
No carcinogenicity, mutagenicity or fertility studies have been conducted with the combination of olmesartan medoxomil, amlodipine and hydrochlorothiazide. However, these studies have been conducted for olmesartan medoxomil, amlodipine and hydrochlorothiazide alone.
Olmesartan was not carcinogenic when administered by dietary administration to rats for up to 2 years. The highest dose tested (2000 mg/kg/day) was, on a mg/m² basis, about 480 times the MRHD of 40 mg/day. Two carcinogenicity studies conducted in mice, a 6-month gavage study in the p53 knockout mouse and a 6-month dietary administration study in the Hras2 transgenic mouse, at doses of up to 1000 mg/kg/day (on a mg/m² basis, about 120 times the MRHD of 40 mg/day), revealed no evidence of a carcinogenic effect of olmesartan.
Both olmesartan medoxomil and olmesartan tested negative in the in vitro Syrian hamster embryo cell transformation assay and showed no evidence of genetic toxicity in the Ames (bacterial mutagenicity) test. However, both were shown to induce chromosomal aberrations in cultured cells in vitro (Chinese hamster lung) and tested positive for thymidine kinase mutations in the in vitro mouse lymphoma assay. Olmesartan medoxomil tested negative in vivo for mutations in the MutaMouse intestine and kidney and for clastogenicity in mouse bone marrow (micronucleus test) at oral doses of up to 2000 mg/kg (olmesartan not tested).
Fertility of rats was unaffected by administration of olmesartan at dose levels as high as 1000 mg/kg/day (240 times the MRHD of 40 mg/day on a mg/m² basis) in a study in which dosing was begun 2 (female) or 9 (male) weeks prior to mating. (Calculations based on a 60 kg patient.)
Rats and mice treated with amlodipine maleate in the diet for up to 2 years, at concentrations calculated to provide daily dosage levels of amlodipine 0.5, 1.25, and 2.5 mg/kg/day showed no evidence of a carcinogenic effect of the drug. For the mouse, the highest dose was, on a mg/m² basis, similar to the MRHD of amlodipine 10 mg/day. For the rat, the highest dose was, on a mg/m² basis, about two times the MRHD (calculations based on a 60 kg patient).
Mutagenicity studies conducted with amlodipine maleate revealed no drug related effects at either the gene or chromosome level.
There was no effect on the fertility of rats treated orally with amlodipine maleate (males for 64 days and females for 14 days prior to mating) at doses of amlodipine up to 10 mg/kg/day (about 10 times the MRHD of 10 mg/day on a mg/m² basis).
Two-year feeding studies in mice and rats conducted under the auspices of the National Toxicology Program (NTP) uncovered no evidence of a carcinogenic potential of hydrochlorothiazide in female mice (at doses of up to approximately 600 mg/kg/day) or in male and female rats (at doses of up to approximately 100 mg/kg/day). These doses in mice and rats are about 117 and 39 times, respectively, the MRHD of 25 mg/day on a mg/m² basis. (Calculations based on a 60 kg patient.) The NTP, however, found equivocal evidence for hepatocarcinogenicity in male mice.
Hydrochlorothiazide was not genotoxic in vitro in the Ames mutagenicity assay of Salmonella typhimurium strains TA 98, TA 100, TA 1535, TA 1537, and TA 1538, or in the Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) test for chromosomal aberrations. It was also not genotoxic in vivo in assays using mouse germinal cell chromosomes, Chinese Hamster bone marrow chromosomes, or in Drosophilla sex-linked recessive lethal trait gene. Positive test results were obtained in the in vitro CHO Sister Chromatid Exchange (clastogenicity) assay, the Mouse Lymphoma Cell (mutagenicity) assay and the Aspergillus nidulans nondisjunction assay.
Hydrochlorothiazide had no adverse effects on the fertility of mice and rats of either sex in studies wherein these species were exposed, via their diet, to doses of up to 100 and 4 mg/kg, respectively, prior to mating and throughout gestation. These doses in mice and rats are about 19 and 1.5 times, respectively, the MRHD of 25 mg/day on a mg/m² basis. (Calculations based on a 60 kg patient.)
No reproductive studies have been conducted with the combination of olmesartan medoxomil, amlodipine and hydrochlorothiazide. However, these studies have been conducted for olmesartan medoxomil, amlodipine and hydrochlorothiazide alone, and olmesartan medoxomil and hydrochlorothiazide together.
No teratogenic effects were observed when olmesartan medoxomil was administered to pregnant rats at oral doses up to 1000 mg/kg/day (240 times the maximum recommended human dose [MRHD] on a mg/m² basis) or pregnant rabbits at oral doses up to 1 mg/kg/day (half the MRHD on a mg/m² basis; higher doses could not be evaluated for effects on fetal development as they were lethal to the does). In rats, significant decreases in pup birth weight and weight gain were observed at doses ≥ 1.6 mg/kg/day, and delays in developmental milestones (delayed separation of ear auricular, eruption of lower incisors, appearance of abdominal hair, descent of testes, and separation of eyelids) and dose-dependent increases in the incidence of dilation of the renal pelvis were observed at doses ≥ 8 mg/kg/day. The no observed effect dose for developmental toxicity in rats is 0.3 mg/kg/day, about one-tenth the MRHD of 40 mg/day.
Olmesartan medoxomil and Hydrochlorothiazide
No teratogenic effects were observed when 1.6:1 combinations of olmesartan medoxomil and hydrochlorothiazide were administered to pregnant mice at oral doses up to 1625 mg/kg/day (122 times the MRHD on a mg/m² basis) or pregnant rats up to 1625 mg/kg/day (243 times the MRHD on a mg/m² basis) or pregnant rabbits at oral doses up to 1 mg/kg/day (0.3 times the MRHD on a mg/m² basis). In rats, however, fetal body weights at 1625 mg/kg/day (a toxic, sometimes lethal dose in the dams) were significantly lower than control. The no observed effect dose for developmental toxicity in rats is 162.5 mg/kg/day, about 24 times, on a mg/m² basis, the MRHD of 40 mg olmesartan medoxomil/25 mg hydrochlorothiazide/day. (Calculations based on a 60 kg patient.)
No evidence of teratogenicity or other embryo/fetal toxicity was found when pregnant rats and rabbits were treated orally with amlodipine maleate at doses of up to 10 mg amlodipine/kg/day (respectively about 10 and 20 times the maximum recommended human dose of 10 mg amlodipine on a mg/m² basis) during their respective periods of major organogenesis (calculations based on a patient weight of 60 kg). However, litter size was significantly decreased (by about 50%) and the number of intrauterine deaths was significantly increased (about 5-fold) in rats receiving amlodipine maleate at a dose equivalent to 10 mg amlodipine/kg/day for 14 days before mating and throughout mating and gestation. Amlodipine maleate has been shown to prolong both the gestational period and the duration of labor in rats at this dose. There are no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women. Amlodipine should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus.
Use In Specific Populations
Pregnancy Category D
Use of drugs that act on the renin-angiotensin system during the second and third trimesters of pregnancy reduces fetal renal function and increases fetal and neonatal morbidity and death. Resulting oligohydramnios can be associated with fetal lung hypoplasia and skeletal deformations. Potential neonatal adverse effects include skull hypoplasia, anuria, hypotension, renal failure, and death. When pregnancy is detected, discontinue Tribenzor as soon as possible. These adverse outcomes are usually associated with use of these drugs in the second and third trimester of pregnancy. Most epidemiologic studies examining fetal abnormalities after exposure to antihypertensive use in the first trimester have not distinguished drugs affecting the renin-angiotensin system from other antihypertensive agents. Appropriate management of maternal hypertension during pregnancy is important to optimize outcomes for both mother and fetus.
In the unusual case that there is no appropriate alternative to therapy with drugs affecting the renin-angiotensin system for a particular patient, apprise the mother of the potential risk to the fetus. Perform serial ultrasound examinations to assess the intraamniotic environment. If oligohydramnios is observed, discontinue Tribenzor, unless it is considered lifesaving for the mother. Fetal testing may be appropriate, based on the week of pregnancy. Patients and physicians should be aware, however, that oligohydramnios may not appear until after the fetus has sustained irreversible injury. Closely observe infants with histories of in utero exposure to Tribenzor for hypotension, oliguria, and hyperkalemia [see Use in Specific Populations].
It is not known whether amlodipine or olmesartan are excreted in human milk, but thiazides appear in human milk and olmesartan is secreted at low concentration in the milk of lactating rats. Because of the potential for adverse effects on the nursing infant, a decision should be made whether to discontinue nursing or discontinue the drug, taking into account the importance of the drug to the mother.
Neonates with a history of in utero exposure to Tribenzor: If oliguria or hypotension occurs, direct attention toward support of blood pressure and renal perfusion. Exchange transfusions or dialysis may be required as a means of reversing hypotension and/or substituting for disordered renal function.
The safety and effectiveness of Tribenzor in pediatric patients have not been established.
In a controlled clinical trial, 123 hypertensive patients treated with Tribenzor were ≥ 65 years of age and 18 patients were ≥ 75 years of age. No overall differences in the efficacy or safety of Tribenzor were observed in these patient populations; however, greater sensitivity of some older individuals cannot be ruled out.
There are no studies of Tribenzor in patients with hepatic insufficiency, but both amlodipine and olmesartan medoxomil show moderate increases in exposure in patients with severe hepatic impairment. Initiate amlodipine at 2.5 mg in patients with severe hepatic impairment.
Increases in AUC0-∞ and peak plasma concentration (Cmax) for olmesartan were observed with moderate hepatic impairment compared to those in matched controls with an increase in AUC of about 60%.
In patients with impaired hepatic function or progressive liver disease, minor alterations of fluid and electrolyte balance may precipitate hepatic coma.
There are no studies of Tribenzor in patients with renal impairment. Avoid use in patients with severe renal impairment (creatinine clearance < 30 mL/min).
Patients with renal insufficiency have elevated serum concentrations of olmesartan compared with patients with normal renal function. After repeated dosing, AUC was approximately tripled in patients with severe renal impairment (creatinine clearance < 20 mL/min). No initial dosage adjustment is recommended for patients with moderate to marked renal impairment (creatinine clearance < 40 mL/min). The pharmacokinetics of olmesartan in patients undergoing hemodialysis has not been studied.
The pharmacokinetics of amlodipine are not significantly influenced by renal impairment.
Thiazide should be used with caution in patients with severe renal disease. In patients with renal disease, thiazides may precipitate azotemia. Cumulative effects of the drug may develop in patients with impaired renal function.
Of the total number of patients who received Tribenzor in a randomized trial, 29% (184/627) were black. Tribenzor was effective in lowering both systolic and diastolic blood pressure in black patients (usually a low-renin population) to the same extent as in non-black patients.
Last reviewed on RxList: 10/27/2014
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.
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