"In laboratory tests, researchers have used electrical stimulation of retinal cells to produce the same patterns of activity that occur when the retina sees a moving object. Although more work remains, this is a step toward restoring natural, high"...
TRIESENCE® suspension should not be administered intravenously.
Strict aseptic technique is mandatory.
Risk of infection
Corticosteroids may mask some signs of infection, and new infections may appear during their use. There may be decreased resistance and inability to localize infection when corticosteroids are used. Corticosteroids may enhance the establishment of secondary ocular infections due to fungi or viruses. If an infection occurs during corticosteroid therapy, it should be promptly controlled by suitable antimicrobial therapy.
See also Increased Risks Related to Infection.
Elevated Intraocular Pressure
Effects on intraocular pressure may last up to 6 months following injection and are usually managed by topical glaucoma therapy. A small percentage of patients may require aggressive non-topical treatment. Intraocular pressure as well as perfusion of the optic nerve head should be monitored and managed appropriately.
The rate of infectious culture positive endophthalmitis is 0.5%.
Proper aseptic techniques should always be used when administering triamcinolone acetonide. In addition, patients should be monitored following the injection to permit early treatment should an infection occur.
Use of corticosteroids may produce cataracts, particularly posterior subcapsular cataracts.
Patients with Ocular Herpes Simplex
Corticosteroids should be used cautiously in patients with ocular herpes simplex because of possible corneal perforation.
Corticosteroids should not be used in active ocular herpes simplex.
Alterations in Endocrine Function
Corticosteroids can produce reversible HPA axis suppression with the potential for glucocorticosteroid insufficiency after withdrawal of treatment. Drug induced secondary adrenocortical insufficiency may be minimized by gradual reduction of dosage. This type of relative insufficiency may persist for months after discontinuation of therapy; therefore, in any situation of stress occurring during that period, hormone therapy should be reinstituted. Metabolic clearance of corticosteroids is decreased in hypothyroid patients and increased in hyperthyroid patients. Changes in thyroid status of the patient may necessitate adjustment in dosage.
Increased Risks Related to Infections
Corticosteroids may increase the risks related to infections with any pathogen, including viral, bacterial, fungal, protozoan, or helminthic infections. The degree to which the dose, route and duration of corticosteroid administration correlates with the specific risks of infection is not well characterized; however, with increasing doses of corticosteroids, the rate of occurrence of infectious complications increases.
Corticosteroids may mask some signs of infection and may reduce resistance to new infections.
Corticosteroids may exacerbate infections and increase risk of disseminated infection. The use of corticosteroids in active tuberculosis should be restricted to those cases of fulminating or disseminated tuberculosis in which the corticosteroid is used for the management of the disease in conjunction with an appropriate antituberculous regimen.
Chickenpox and measles can have a more serious or even fatal course in non-immune children or adults on corticosteroids. In children or adults who have not had these diseases, particular care should be taken to avoid exposure. If a patient is exposed to chickenpox, prophylaxis with varicella zoster immune globulin (VZIG) may be indicated. If patient is exposed to measles, prophylaxis with pooled intramuscular immunoglobulin (IG) may be indicated. If chickenpox develops, treatment with antiviral agents may be considered.
Corticosteroids should be used with great care in patients with known or suspected Strongyloides (threadworm) infestation. In such patients, corticosteroid-induced immunosuppression may lead to Strongyloides hyperinfection and dissemination with widespread larval migration, often accompanied by severe enterocolitis and potentially fatal gram-negative septicemia. Corticosteroids may increase risk of reactivation or exacerbation of latent infection. If corticosteroids are indicated in patients with latent tuberculosis or tuberculin reactivity, close observation is necessary as reactivation of the disease may occur. During prolonged corticosteroid therapy, these patients should receive chemoprophylaxis.
Corticosteroids may activate latent amebiasis. Therefore, it is recommended that latent or active amebiasis be ruled out before initiating corticosteroid therapy in any patient who has spent time in the tropics or in any patient with unexplained diarrhea. Corticosteroids should not be used in cerebral malaria.
Alterations in Cardiovascular/Renal Function
Corticosteroids can cause elevation of blood pressure, salt and water retention, and increased excretion of potassium and calcium. These effects are less likely to occur with the synthetic derivatives except when used in large doses. Dietary salt restriction and potassium supplementation may be necessary. These agents should be used with caution in patients with hypertension, congestive heart failure, or renal insufficiency. Literature reports suggest an association between use of corticosteroids and left ventricular free wall rupture after a recent myocardial infarction; therefore, therapy with corticosteroids should be used with caution in these patients.
Use in Patients with Gastrointestinal Disorders
There is an increased risk of gastrointestinal perforation in patients with certain GI disorders. Signs of GI perforation, such as peritoneal irritation, may be masked in patients receiving corticosteroids.
Corticosteroids should be used with caution if there is a probability of impending perforation, abscess or other pyogenic infections; diverticulitis; fresh intestinal anastomoses; and active or latent peptic ulcer.
Behavioral and Mood Disturbances
Corticosteroid use may be associated with central nervous system effects ranging from euphoria, insomnia, mood swings, personality changes, and severe depression, to frank psychotic manifestations. Also, existing emotional instability or psychotic tendencies may be aggravated by corticosteroids.
Decrease in Bone Density
Corticosteroids decrease bone formation and increase bone resorption both through their effect on calcium regulation (i.e., decreasing absorption and increasing excretion) and inhibition of osteoblast function. This, together with a decrease in the protein matrix of the bone secondary to an increase in protein catabolism, and reduced sex hormone production, may lead to inhibition of bone growth in children and adolescents and the development of osteoporosis at any age. Special consideration should be given to patients at increased risk of osteoporosis (i.e., postmenopausal women) before initiating corticosteroid therapy and bone density should be monitored in patients on long term corticosteroid therapy.
Administration of live or live attenuated vaccines is contraindicated in patients receiving immunosuppressive doses of corticosteroids. Killed or inactivated vaccines may be administered; however, the response to such vaccines can not be predicted. Immunization procedures may be undertaken in patients who are receiving corticosteroids as replacement therapy, e.g., for Addison's disease.
While on corticosteroid therapy, patients should not be vaccinated against smallpox. Other immunization procedures should not be undertaken in patients who are on corticosteroids, especially on high dose, because of possible hazards of neurological complications and a lack of antibody response.
Effect on Growth and Development
Long-term use of corticosteroids can have negative effects on growth and development in children. Growth and development of pediatric patients on prolonged corticosteroid therapy should be carefully monitored.
Use in Pregnancy
Triamcinolone acetonide can cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman. Human and animal studies suggest that use of corticosteroids during the first trimester of pregnancy is associated with an increased risk of orofacial clefts, intrauterine growth restriction and decreased birth weight. If this drug is used during pregnancy, or if the patient becomes pregnant while using this drug, the patient should be apprised of the potential hazard to the fetus. [See Use in Specific Populations].
Systemically administered corticosteroids may increase appetite and cause weight gain.
Although controlled clinical trials have shown corticosteroids to be effective in speeding the resolution of acute exacerbations of multiple sclerosis, they do not show that they affect the ultimate outcome or natural history of the disease. The studies do show that relatively high doses of corticosteroids are necessary to demonstrate a significant effect.
An acute myopathy has been observed with the use of high doses of corticosteroids, most often occurring in patients with disorders of neuromuscular transmission (e.g., myasthenia gravis), or in patients receiving concomitant therapy with neuromuscular blocking drugs (e.g., pancuronium). This acute myopathy is generalized, may involve ocular and respiratory muscles, and may result in quadriparesis. Elevation of creatine kinase may occur. Clinical improvement or recovery after stopping corticosteroids may require weeks to years.
Kaposi's sarcoma has been reported to occur in patients receiving corticosteroid therapy, most often for chronic conditions. Discontinuation of corticosteroids may result in clinical improvement
Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility
No evidence of mutagenicity was detected from in-vitro tests conducted with triamcinolone acetonide including a reverse mutation test in Salmonella bacteria and a forward mutation test in Chinese hamster ovary cells. With regard to carcinogenicity, in a two-year study in rats, triamcinolone acetonide caused no treatment-related carcinogenicity at oral doses up to 0.001mg/kg and in a two-year study in mice, triamcinolone acetonide caused no treatment-related carcinogenicity at oral doses up to 0.003 mg/kg (less than 1/25th of the recommended human dose). In male and female rats, triamcinolone acetonide caused no change in pregnancy rate at oral doses up to 0.015 mg/kg, but caused increased fetal resorptions and stillbirths and decreases in pup weight and survival at doses of 0.005 mg/kg (less than 1/10th of the recommended human dose).
Use In Specific Populations
Teratogenic Effects: Pregnancy Category D [See WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]
Multiple cohort and case controlled studies in humans suggest that maternal corticosteroid use during the first trimester increases the rate of cleft lip with or without cleft palate from about 1/1000 infants to 3- 5/1000 infants. Two prospective case control studies showed decreased birth weight in infants exposed to maternal corticosteroids in utero.
Triamcinolone acetonide was teratogenic in rats, rabbits, and monkeys. In rats and rabbits, triamcinolone acetonide was teratogenic at inhalation doses of 0.02 mg/kg and above and in monkeys, triamcinolone acetonide was teratogenic at an inhalation dose of 0.5 mg/kg (1/4 and 7 times the recommended human dose). Dose-related teratogenic effects in rats and rabbits included cleft palate and/or internal hydrocephaly and axial skeletal defects, whereas the effects observed in monkeys were cranial malformations. These effects are similar to those noted with other corticosteroids.
Corticosteroids should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus. Infants born to mothers who received corticosteroids during pregnancy should be carefully observed for signs of hypoadrenalism.
Corticosteroids are secreted in human milk. Reports suggest that steroid concentrations in human milk are 5 to 25% of maternal serum levels, and that total infant daily doses are small, less than 0.2% of the maternal daily dose. The risk of infant exposure to steroids through breast milk should be weighed against the known benefits of breastfeeding for both the mother and baby.
The efficacy and safety of corticosteroids in the pediatric population are based on the well established course of effect of corticosteroids which is similar in pediatric and adult populations.
The adverse effects of corticosteroids in pediatric patients are similar to those in adults. [See ADVERSE REACTIONS].
Like adults, pediatric patients should be carefully observed with frequent measurements of blood pressure, weight, height, intraocular pressure, and clinical evaluation for the presence of infection, psychosocial disturbances, thromboembolism, peptic ulcers, cataracts, and osteoporosis. Children, who are treated with corticosteroids by any route, including systemically administered corticosteroids, may experience a decrease in their growth velocity. This negative impact of corticosteroids on growth has been observed at low systemic doses and in the absence of laboratory evidence of HPA axis suppression (i.e., cosyntropin stimulation and basal cortisol plasma levels). Growth velocity may therefore be a more sensitive indicator of systemic corticosteroid exposure in children than some commonly used tests of HPA axis function. The linear growth of children treated with corticosteroids by any route should be monitored, and the potential growth effects of prolonged treatment should be weighed against clinical benefits obtained and the availability of other treatment alternatives. In order to minimize the potential growth effects of corticosteroids, children should be titrated to the lowest effective dose.
No overall differences in safety or effectiveness were observed between elderly subjects and younger subjects, and other reported clinical experience with triamcinolone has not identified differences in responses between the elderly and younger patients. However, the incidence of corticosteroid-induced side effects may be increased in geriatric patients and are dose-related. Osteoporosis is the most frequently encountered complication, which occurs at a higher incidence rate in corticosteroid-treated geriatric patients as compared to younger populations and in age-matched controls. Losses of bone mineral density appear to be greatest early on in the course of treatment and may recover over time after steroid withdrawal or use of lower doses.This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.
Last reviewed on RxList: 11/16/2016
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