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(abacavir, lamivudine, and zidovudine)Tablets
HYPERSENSITIVITY REACTIONS, HEMATOLOGIC TOXICITY, MYOPATHY, LACTIC ACIDOSIS AND SEVERE HEPATOMEGALY WITH STEATOSIS, and EXACERBATIONS OF HEPATITIS B
Serious and sometimes fatal hypersensitivity reactions, with multiple organ involvement, have occurred with abacavir, a component of TRIZIVIR (abacavir, lamivudine, and zidovudine). Patients who carry the HLA-B*5701 allele are at a higher risk of a hypersensitivity reaction to abacavir; although, hypersensitivity reactions have occurred in patients who do not carry the HLA-B*5701 allele [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
TRIZIVIR is contraindicated in patients with a prior hypersensitivity reaction to abacavir and in HLA-B*5701-positive patients [see CONTRAINDICATIONS, WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]. All patients should be screened for the HLA-B*5701 allele prior to initiating therapy with TRIZIVIR or reinitiation of therapy with TRIZIVIR, unless patients have a previously documented HLA-B*5701 allele assessment. Discontinue TRIZIVIR immediately if a hypersensitivity reaction is suspected, regardless of HLA-B*5701 status and even when other diagnoses are possible [see CONTRAINDICATIONS, WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
Following a hypersensitivity reaction to TRIZIVIR, NEVER restart TRIZIVIR or any other abacavir-containing product because more severe symptoms, including death, can occur within hours. Similar severe reactions have also occurred rarely following the reintroduction of abacavir-containing products in patients who have no history of abacavir hypersensitivity [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
Zidovudine, a component of TRIZIVIR, has been associated with hematologic toxicity, including neutropenia and severe anemia, particularly in patients with advanced Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV-1) disease [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
Prolonged use of zidovudine has been associated with symptomatic myopathy [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
Lactic Acidosis and Severe Hepatomegaly with Steatosis
Lactic acidosis and severe hepatomegaly with steatosis, including fatal cases, have been reported with the use of nucleoside analogues and other antiretrovirals. Discontinue TRIZIVIR if clinical or laboratory findings suggestive of lactic acidosis or pronounced hepatotoxicity occur [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
Exacerbations of Hepatitis B
Severe acute exacerbations of hepatitis B have been reported in patients who are co-infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV) and HIV-1 and have discontinued lamivudine, a component of TRIZIVIR. Hepatic function should be monitored closely with both clinical and laboratory follow-up for at least several months in patients who discontinue TRIZIVIR and are co-infected with HIV-1 and HBV. If appropriate, initiation of anti-hepatitis B therapy may be warranted [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
TRIZIVIR tablets contain the following 3 synthetic nucleoside analogues: abacavir (ZIAGEN), lamivudine (also known as EPIVIR or 3TC), and zidovudine (also known as RETROVIR, azidothymidine, or ZDV) with inhibitory activity against HIV-1.
TRIZIVIR tablets are for oral administration. Each film-coated tablet contains the active ingredients 300 mg of abacavir as abacavir sulfate, 150 mg of lamivudine, and 300 mg of zidovudine, and the inactive ingredients magnesium stearate, microcrystalline cellulose, and sodium starch glycolate. The tablets are coated with a film (OPADRY® green 03B11434) that is made of FD&C Blue No. 2, hypromellose, polyethylene glycol, titanium dioxide, and yellow iron oxide.
The chemical name of abacavir sulfate is (1S,cis)-4-[2-amino-6(cyclopropylamino)-9H-purin-9-yl]-2-cyclopentene-1-methanol sulfate (salt) (2:1). Abacavir sulfate is the enantiomer with 1S, 4R absolute configuration on the cyclopentene ring. It has a molecular formula of (C14H18N6O)2•H2SO4 and a molecular weight of 670.76 g per mol. It has the following structural formula:
Abacavir sulfate is a white to off-white solid and soluble in water. Dosages are expressed in terms of abacavir.
The chemical name of lamivudine is (2R,cis)-4-amino-1-(2-hydroxymethyl-1,3oxathiolan-5-yl)-(1H)-pyrimidin-2-one. Lamivudine is the (-)enantiomer of a dideoxy analogue of cytidine. Lamivudine has also been referred to as (-)2',3'-dideoxy, 3'-thiacytidine. It has a molecular formula of C8H11N3O3S and a molecular weight of 229.3 g per mol. It has the following structural formula:
Lamivudine is a white to off-white crystalline solid and is soluble in water.
The chemical name of zidovudine is 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine. It has a molecular formula of C10H13N5O4 and a molecular weight of 267.24 g per mol. It has the following structural formula:
Zidovudine is a white to beige, odorless, crystalline solid with a solubility of 20.1 mg per mL in water at 25°C.
What are the possible side effects of this medication (Trizivir)?
Stop using Trizivir and call your doctor at once if you have symptoms of an allergic reaction from two or more of these specific side effect groups:
- Group 1 - fever;
- Group 2 - rash;
- Group 3 - nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, stomach pain;
- Group 4 - general ill feeling, extreme tiredness, body aches;
- Group 5 - shortness of breath, cough, sore throat.
Once you have had an allergic reaction to this medication, you must never use it again. If you stop taking Trizivir for any reason, talk to your doctor before you start taking...
What are the precautions when taking abacavir sulfate, lamivudine, and zidovudine (Trizivir)?
Before taking abacavir/lamivudine/zidovudine, tell your doctor or pharmacist if you are allergic to any of these drugs; or if you have any other allergies. This product may contain inactive ingredients, which can cause allergic reactions or other problems. Talk to your pharmacist for more details.
Before using this medication, tell your doctor or pharmacist your medical history, especially of: kidney problems, liver problems (such as hepatitis B or C, cirrhosis), disease of the pancreas (pancreatitis), alcohol use, low red/white blood cell counts.
Abacavir may increase your risk of a heart attack. Discuss the risks and benefits of treatment with your doctor and ways to lower your risk of heart disease. Tell your doctor if you have heart problems, if you smoke, or if you...
Last reviewed on RxList: 4/3/2017
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.
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