"Oct. 23, 2012 -- Parents who buy organic foods because they think they are more nutritious might be wasting their money, the nation's largest group of pediatricians says.
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Safe, effective use of parenteral nutrition requires a knowledge of nutrition as well as clinical expertise in recognition and treatment of the complications which can occur. Frequent clinical evaluation and laboratory determinations are necessary for proper monitoring of parenteral nutrition. Studies should include blood sugar, serum proteins, kidney and liver function tests, electrolytes, hemogram, carbon dioxide content, serum osmolalities, blood cultures, and blood ammonia levels.
WARNING: This product contains aluminum that may be toxic. Aluminum may reach toxic levels with prolonged parenteral administration if kidney function is impaired. Premature neonates are particularly at risk because their kidneys are immature, and they require large amounts of calcium and phosphate solutions, which contain aluminum.
Research indicates that patients with impaired kidney function, including premature neonates, who receive parenteral levels of aluminum at greater than 4 to 5 µg/kg/day accumulate aluminum at levels associated with central nervous system and bone toxicity. Tissue loading may occur at even lower rates of administration.
Administration of amino acids in the presence of impaired renal function or gastrointestinal bleeding may augment an already elevated blood urea nitrogen. Patients with azotemia from any cause should not be infused with amino acids without regard to total nitrogen intake.
Administration of intravenous solutions can cause fluid and/or solute overload resulting in dilution of serum electrolyte concentrations, overhydration, congested states, or pulmonary edema. The risk of dilutional states is inversely proportional to the electrolyte concentrations of the solutions. The risk of solute overload causing congested states with peripheral and pulmonary edema is directly proportional to the electrolyte concentrations of the solutions.
Administration of amino acid solutions to a patient with hepatic insufficiency may result in plasma amino acid imbalances, hyperammonemia, prerenal azotemia, stupor and coma.
Hyperammonemia is of special significance in infants as its occurrence in the syndrome caused by genetic metabolic defects is sometimes associated, although not necessarily in a causal relationship, with mental retardation. This reaction appears to be dose related and is more likely to develop during prolonged therapy. It is essential that blood ammonia be measured frequently in infants. The mechanisms of this reaction are not clearly defined but may involve genetic defects and immature or subclinically impaired liver function.
Conservative doses of amino acids should be given, dictated by the nutritional status of the patient. Should symptoms of hyperammonemia develop, amino acid administration should be discontinued and the patient's clinical status reevaluated.
This product contains sodium metabisulfite, a sulfite that may cause allergic-type reactions including anaphylactic symptoms and life-threatening or severe asthmatic episodes in certain susceptible people. The overall prevalence of sulfite sensitivity in the general population is unknown and probably low. Sulfite sensitivity is seen more frequently in asthmatic than in nonasthmatic people.
Clinical evaluation and periodic laboratory determinations are necessary to monitor changes in fluid balance, electrolyte concentrations, and acid-base balance during prolonged parenteral therapy or when ever the condition of the patient warrants such evaluation. Significant deviations from normal concentrations may require the use of additional electrolyte supplements.
Strongly hypertonic nutrient solutions should be administered via an intravenous catheter placed in a central vein, preferably the superior vena cava.
Care should be taken to avoid circulatory overload, particularly in patients with cardiac insufficiency.
Special care must be taken when giving hypertonic dextrose to a diabetic or pre-diabetic patient. To prevent severe hyperglycemia in such patients, insulin may be required.
Administration of glucose at a rate exceeding the patient's utilization rate may lead to hyperglycemia, coma, and death.
Administration of amino acids without carbohydrates may result in the accumulation of ketone bodies in the blood. Correction of this ketonemia may be achieved by the administration of carbohydrate.
Peripheral administration of TrophAmine® (Amino Acid Injections) requires appropriate dilution and provision of adequate calories. Care should be taken to assure proper placement of the needle within the lumen of the vein. The venipuncture site should be inspected frequently for signs of infiltration. If venous thrombosis or phlebitis occurs, discontinue infusions or change infusion site and initiate appropriate treatment. In pediatric patients, the final solution should not exceed twice normal serum osmolarity (718 mOsmol/L).
Extraordinary electrolyte losses such as may occur during protracted nasogastric suction, vomiting, diarrhea, or gastrointestinal fistula drainage may necessitate additional electrolyte supplementation.
Metabolic acidosis can be prevented or readily controlled by adding a portion of the cations in the electrolyte mixture as acetate salts and in the case of hyperchloremic acidosis, by keeping the total chloride content of the infusate to a minimum. TrophAmine® (Amino Acid Injections) contains less than 3 mEq chloride per liter.
TrophAmine (amino acids) contains no added phosphorus. Patients, especially those with hypophosphatemia, may require the addition of phosphate. To prevent hypocalcemia, calcium supplementation should always accompany phosphate administration. To assure adequate intake, serum levels should be monitored frequently.
To minimize the risk of possible incompatibilities arising from mixing this solution with other additives that may be prescribed, the final infusate should be inspected for cloudiness or precipitation immediately after mixing, prior to administration, and periodically during administration.
Use only if solution is clear and vacuum is present.
Drug product contains no more than 25 µg/L of aluminum.
Frequent clinical evaluation and laboratory determinations are necessary for proper monitoring during administration.
Laboratory tests should include measurement of blood sugar, electrolyte, and serum protein concentrations; kidney and liver function tests; and evaluation of acid-base balance and fluid balance. Other laboratory tests may be suggested by the patient's condition.
Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility
Pregnancy - Teratogenic Effects - Pregnancy Category C.
Animal reproduction studies have not been conducted with TrophAmine (Amino Acid Injections). It is also not known whether TrophAmine (amino acids) can cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman or can affect reproduction capacity. TrophAmine (amino acids) should be given to a pregnant woman only if clearly needed.
Labor and Delivery
Information is unknown.
It is not known whether this drug is excreted in human milk. Because many drugs are excreted in human milk, caution should be exercised with TrophAmine (amino acids) if administered to a nursing woman.
As in all cases of fluid and electrolyte replacement and parenteral nutrition, careful monitoring and special caution is required in pediatric use, especially in pediatric patients with renal failure, acute sepsis, or low birth weight.
The total volume of nutritional fluid and the rate of administration in each patient will be based on individually calculated maintenance and/or replacement fluid requirements, and nutritional needs, and will vary with the child's age, body weight and renal function.
In neonates and very small infants, particularly careful monitoring will be required to maintain fluid and electrolyte balance, including monitoring of blood glucose.
TrophAmine (amino acids) has not been studied in geriatric patients. Elderly patients are known to be more prone to fluid overload and electrolyte imbalance than younger patients. This may be related to impairment of renal function which is more frequent in an elderly population. As a result the need for careful monitoring of fluid and electrolyte therapy is greater in the elderly.
All patients, including the elderly, require an individual dose of all parenteral nutrition products to be determined by the physician on an individual case-by-case basis, which will be based on body weight, clinical condition and the results of laboratory monitoring tests. There is no specific geriatric dose. See WARNINGS.
Special Precautions for Central Venous Nutrition
Administration by central venous catheter should be used only by those familiar with this technique and its complications.
Central venous nutrition may be associated with complications which can be prevented or minimized by careful attention to all aspects of the procedure, including solution preparation, administration, and patient monitoring. It is essential that a carefully prepared protocol, based on current medical practices, be followed, preferably by an experienced team.
Although a detailed discussion of the complications is beyond the scope of this insert, the following summary lists those based on current literature:
Technical. The placement of a central venous catheter should be regarded as a surgical procedure. One should be fully acquainted with various techniques of catheter insertion as well as recognition and treatment of complications. For details of techniques and placement sites, consult the medical literature. X-ray is the best means of verifying catheter placement. Complications known to occur from the placement of central venous catheters are pneumothorax, hemothorax, hydrothorax, artery puncture and transection, injury to the brachial plexus, malposition of the catheter, formation of arteriovenous fistula, phlebitis, thrombosis, and air and catheter embolus.
Septic. The constant risk of sepsis is present during central venous nutrition. Since contaminated solutions and infusion catheters are potential sources of infection, it is imperative that the preparation of parenteral nutrition solutions and the placement and care of catheters be accomplished under controlled aseptic conditions.
Solutions should ideally be prepared in the hospital pharmacy in a laminar flow hood. The key factor in their preparation is careful aseptic technique to avoid inadvertent touch contamination during mixing of solutions and subsequent admixtures.
Parenteral nutrition solutions should be used promptly after mixing. Any storage should be under refrigeration for as brief a time as possible. Administration time for a single bottle and set should never exceed 24 hours.
Consult the medical literature for a discussion of the management of sepsis during central venous nutrition. In brief, typical management includes replacing the solution being administered with a fresh container and set, and the remaining contents are cultured for bacterial or fungal contamination. If sepsis persists and another source of infection is not identified, the catheter is removed, the proximal tip cultured, and a new catheter reinserted when the fever has subsided. Non-specific, prophylactic antibiotic treatment is not recommended. Clinical experience indicates that the catheter is likely to be the prime source of infection as opposed to aseptically prepared and properly stored solutions.
Metabolic. The following metabolic complications have been reported: metabolic acidosis, hypophosphatemia, alkalosis, hyperglycemia and glycosuria, osmotic diuresis and dehydration, rebound hypoglycemia, elevated liver enzymes, hypo- and hypervitaminosis, electrolyte imbalances, and hyperammonemia in pediatric patients. Frequent clinical evaluation and laboratory determinations are necessary, especially during the first few days of venous nutrition, to prevent or minimize these complications.
Last reviewed on RxList: 2/4/2009
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.
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