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Lactic Acidosis/Severe Hepatomegaly With Steatosis
Lactic acidosis and severe hepatomegaly with steatosis, including fatal cases, have been reported with the use of nucleoside analogs, including VIREAD, a component of TRUVADA, in combination with other antiretrovirals. A majority of these cases have been in women. Obesity and prolonged nucleoside exposure may be risk factors. Particular caution should be exercised when administering nucleoside analogs to any patient or uninfected individual with known risk factors for liver disease; however, cases have also been reported in HIV-1 infected patients with no known risk factors. Treatment with TRUVADA should be suspended in any patient or uninfected individual who develops clinical or laboratory findings suggestive of lactic acidosis or pronounced hepatotoxicity (which may include hepatomegaly and steatosis even in the absence of marked transaminase elevations).
It is recommended that all individuals be tested for the presence of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) before initiating TRUVADA. TRUVADA is not approved for the treatment of chronic HBV infection and the safety and efficacy of TRUVADA have not been established in patients infected with HBV. Severe acute exacerbations of hepatitis B have been reported in patients who are coinfected with HBV and HIV-1 and have discontinued TRUVADA. In some patients infected with HBV and treated with EMTRIVA, the exacerbations of hepatitis B were associated with liver decompensation and liver failure. Patients who are infected with HBV should be closely monitored with both clinical and laboratory follow-up for at least several months after stopping treatment with TRUVADA. If appropriate, initiation of anti-hepatitis B therapy may be warranted. HBV-uninfected individuals should be offered vaccination.
New Onset Or Worsening Renal Impairment
Emtricitabine and tenofovir are principally eliminated by the kidney. Renal impairment, including cases of acute renal failure and Fanconi syndrome (renal tubular injury with severe hypophosphatemia), has been reported with the use of VIREAD [See ADVERSE REACTIONS].
It is recommended that estimated creatinine clearance be assessed in all individuals prior to initiating therapy and as clinically appropriate during therapy with TRUVADA. In patients at risk of renal dysfunction, including patients who have previously experienced renal events while receiving HEPSERA®, it is recommended that estimated creatinine clearance, serum phosphorus, urine glucose, and urine protein be assessed prior to initiation of TRUVADA, and periodically during TRUVADA therapy.
TRUVADA should be avoided with concurrent or recent use of a nephrotoxic agent (e.g., high-dose or multiple non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)) [See DRUG INTERACTIONS]. Cases of acute renal failure after initiation of high dose or multiple NSAIDs have been reported in HIV-infected patients with risk factors for renal dysfunction who appeared stable on tenofovir DF. Some patients required hospitalization and renal replacement therapy. Alternatives to NSAIDs should be considered, if needed, in patients at risk for renal dysfunction.
Persistent or worsening bone pain, pain in extremities, fractures and/or muscular pain or weakness may be manifestations of proximal renal tubulopathy and should prompt an evaluation of renal function in at-risk patients.
Treatment of HIV-1 Infection
Dosing interval adjustment of TRUVADA and close monitoring of renal function are recommended in all patients with estimated creatinine clearance 30–49 mL/min, [See DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION]. No safety or efficacy data are available in patients with renal impairment who received TRUVADA using these dosing guidelines, so the potential benefit of TRUVADA therapy should be assessed against the potential risk of renal toxicity. TRUVADA should not be administered to patients with estimated creatinine clearance below 30 mL/min or patients requiring hemodialysis.
TRUVADA for a PrEP indication should not be used if estimated creatinine clearance is less than 60 mL/min. If a decrease in estimated creatinine clearance is observed in uninfected individuals while using TRUVADA for PrEP, evaluate potential causes and re-assess potential risks and benefits of continued use [See DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION].
Coadministration With Other Products
TRUVADA is a fixed-dose combination of emtricitabine and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate. Do not coadminister TRUVADA with ATRIPLA, COMPLERA, EMTRIVA, STRIBILD, or VIREAD. Due to similarities between emtricitabine and lamivudine, do not coadminister TRUVADA with other drugs containing lamivudine, including Combivir (lamivudine/zidovudine), Epivir or Epivir-HBV (lamivudine), Epzicom (abacavir sulfate/lamivudine), or Trizivir (abacavir sulfate/lamivudine/zidovudine).
Do not coadminister TRUVADA with HEPSERA (adefovir dipivoxil).
Bone Effects Of Tenofovir DF
Bone Mineral Density
In clinical trials in HIV-1 infected adults and in a clinical trial of HIV-1 uninfected individuals, tenofovir DF was associated with slightly greater decreases in bone mineral density (BMD) and increases in biochemical markers of bone metabolism, suggesting increased bone turnover relative to comparators [See ADVERSE REACTIONS and VIREAD prescribing information]. Serum parathyroid hormone levels and 1,25 Vitamin D levels were also higher in subjects receiving tenofovir DF.
Clinical trials evaluating tenofovir DF in pediatric and adolescent subjects were conducted. Under normal circumstances, BMD increases rapidly in pediatric patients. In HIV-1 infected subjects aged 2 years to less than 18 years, bone effects were similar to those observed in adult subjects and suggest increased bone turnover. Total body BMD gain was less in the tenofovir DF treated HIV-1 infected pediatric subjects as compared to the control groups. Similar trends were observed in chronic hepatitis B infected adolescent subjects aged 12 years to less than 18 years. In all pediatric trials, skeletal growth (height) appeared to be unaffected. For more information, please consult the VIREAD prescribing information.
The effects of tenofovir DF-associated changes in BMD and biochemical markers on long-term bone health and future fracture risk are unknown. Assessment of BMD should be considered for adult and pediatric patients who have a history of pathologic bone fracture or other risk factors for osteoporosis or bone loss. Although the effect of supplementation with calcium and vitamin D was not studied, such supplementation may be beneficial. If bone abnormalities are suspected then appropriate consultation should be obtained.
Cases of osteomalacia associated with proximal renal tubulopathy, manifested as bone pain or pain in extremities and which may contribute to fractures, have been reported in association with the use of tenofovir DF [See ADVERSE REACTIONS]. Arthralgias and muscle pain or weakness have also been reported in cases of proximal renal tubulopathy. Hypophosphatemia and osteomalacia secondary to proximal renal tubulopathy should be considered in patients at risk of renal dysfunction who present with persistent or worsening bone or muscle symptoms while receiving products containing tenofovir DF.
Redistribution/accumulation of body fat including central obesity, dorsocervical fat enlargement (buffalo hump), peripheral wasting, facial wasting, breast enlargement, and “cushingoid appearance” have been observed in HIV-1 infected patients receiving antiretroviral therapy. The mechanism and long-term consequences of these events are currently unknown. A causal relationship has not been established.
Immune Reconstitution Syndrome
Immune reconstitution syndrome has been reported in HIV-1 infected patients treated with combination antiretroviral therapy, including TRUVADA. During the initial phase of combination antiretroviral treatment, HIV-1 infected patients whose immune system responds may develop an inflammatory response to indolent or residual opportunistic infections [such as Mycobacterium avium infection, cytomegalovirus, Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PCP), or tuberculosis], which may necessitate further evaluation and treatment.
Autoimmune disorders (such as Graves' disease, polymyositis, and Guillain-Barré syndrome) have also been reported to occur in the setting of immune reconstitution, however, the time to onset is more variable, and can occur many months after initiation of treatment.
Early Virologic Failure
Clinical trials in HIV-1 infected subjects have demonstrated that certain regimens that only contain three nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTI) are generally less effective than triple drug regimens containing two NRTIs in combination with either a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor or a HIV-1 protease inhibitor. In particular, early virological failure and high rates of resistance substitutions have been reported. Triple nucleoside regimens should therefore be used with caution. Patients on a therapy utilizing a triple nucleoside-only regimen should be carefully monitored and considered for treatment modification.
Comprehensive Management To Reduce The Risk Of Acquiring HIV-1
Use TRUVADA for pre-exposure prophylaxis only as part of a comprehensive prevention strategy that includes other prevention measures, such as safer sex practices, because TRUVADA is not always effective in preventing the acquisition of HIV-1 [See Clinical Studies].
- Counsel uninfected individuals about safer sex practices that include consistent and correct use of condoms, knowledge of their HIV-1 status and that of their partner(s), and regular testing for other sexually transmitted infections that can facilitate HIV-1 transmission (such as syphilis and gonorrhea).
- Inform uninfected individuals about and support their efforts in reducing sexual risk behavior.
Use TRUVADA to reduce the risk of acquiring HIV-1 only in individuals confirmed to be HIV-negative. HIV-1 resistance substitutions may emerge in individuals with undetected HIV-1 infection who are taking only TRUVADA, because TRUVADA alone does not constitute a complete treatment regimen for HIV-1 treatment [See Microbiology: Resistance]; therefore, care should be taken to minimize drug exposure in HIV-infected individuals.
- Many HIV-1 tests, such as rapid tests, detect anti-HIV
antibodies and may not identify HIV-1 during the acute stage of infection.
Prior to initiating TRUVADA for a PrEP indication, evaluate seronegative individuals
for current or recent signs or symptoms consistent with acute viral infections
(e.g., fever, fatigue, myalgia, skin rash, etc.) and ask about potential
exposure events (e.g., unprotected, or condom broke during sex with an HIV-1
infected partner) that may have occurred within the last month.
- If clinical symptoms consistent with acute viral infection are present and recent ( < 1 month) exposures are suspected, delay starting PrEP for at least one month and reconfirm HIV-1 status or use a test approved by the FDA as an aid in the diagnosis of HIV-1 infection, including acute or primary HIV-1 infection.
- While using TRUVADA for a PrEP indication, HIV-1 screening tests should be repeated at least every 3 months. If symptoms consistent with acute HIV-1 infection develop following a potential exposure event, PrEP should be discontinued until negative infection status is confirmed using a test approved by the FDA as an aid in the diagnosis of HIV-1, including acute or primary HIV-1 infection.
Counsel uninfected individuals to strictly adhere to the recommended TRUVADA dosing schedule. The effectiveness of TRUVADA in reducing the risk of acquiring HIV-1 is strongly correlated with adherence as demonstrated by measurable drug levels in clinical trials [See Clinical Studies].
Patient Counseling Information
As a part of patient counseling, healthcare providers must review the TRUVADA Medication Guide with every uninfected individual taking TRUVADA to reduce the risk of acquiring HIV.
See FDA-approved patient labeling (Medication Guide)
Important Information for All Patients and Uninfected Individuals
Advise patients and uninfected individuals that:
- The long term effects of TRUVADA are unknown.
- TRUVADA tablets are for oral ingestion only.
- Patients and uninfected individuals should not discontinue TRUVADA without first informing their physicians.
- Patients and uninfected individuals should remain under the care of a physician when using TRUVADA.
- It is important to take TRUVADA on a regular dosing schedule to avoid missing doses.
- Lactic acidosis and severe hepatomegaly with steatosis, including fatal cases, have been reported. Treatment with TRUVADA should be suspended in patients or uninfected individuals who develop clinical symptoms suggestive of lactic acidosis or pronounced hepatotoxicity (including nausea, vomiting, unusual or unexpected stomach discomfort, and weakness) [See WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
- Severe acute exacerbations of hepatitis B have been reported in patients who are coinfected with hepatitis B virus (HBV) and HIV-1 and have discontinued TRUVADA. Before initiating TRUVADA, test all patients and uninfected individuals for HBV. All patients who are infected with HBV need close medical follow-up for several months after stopping TRUVADA to monitor for exacerbations of hepatitis [See WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
- Renal impairment, including cases of acute renal failure and Fanconi syndrome, has been reported in association with the use of VIREAD. TRUVADA should be avoided with concurrent or recent use of a nephrotoxic agent (e.g., high-dose or multiple NSAIDs) [See WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]. Dosing interval of TRUVADA may need adjustment in HIV-1 infected patients with renal impairment. TRUVADA for a PrEP indication should not be used in HIV-1 uninfected individuals if estimated creatinine clearance is less than 60 mL/min. If a decrease in estimated creatinine clearance is observed in uninfected individuals while using TRUVADA for PrEP, evaluate potential causes and re-assess potential risks and benefits of continued use [See DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION].
- Do not administer TRUVADA with ATRIPLA, COMPLERA, EMTRIVA, STRIBILD, or VIREAD; or with drugs containing lamivudine, including Combivir (lamivudine/zidovudine), Epivir or Epivir-HBV (lamivudine), Epzicom (abacavir sulfate/lamivudine), or Trizivir (abacavir sulfate/lamivudine/zidovudine) [See WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
- Do not administer TRUVADA with HEPSERA [See WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
- Decreases in bone mineral density have been observed with the use of VIREAD or TRUVADA. Consider bone monitoring in patients and uninfected individuals who have a history of pathologic bone fracture or at risk for osteopenia [See WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
- Patients and uninfected individuals should avoid doing
things that can spread HIV-1 or HBV infection.
- Do not share needles or other injection equipment.
- Do not share personal items that can have blood or body fluids on them, like toothbrushes and razor blades.
- Do not have any kind of sex without protection. Always practice safer sex by using a latex or polyurethane condom to lower the chance of sexual contact with semen, vaginal secretions, or blood.
- Patients and uninfected individuals should not breastfeed because the drugs in TRUVADA can be passed to the baby in breast milk, and it is not known whether they can harm the baby. HIV-positive women should also not breastfeed because of the risk of passing the HIV-1 virus to the baby.
Treatment of HIV-1 Infection
When TRUVADA is used in the treatment of HIV-infection, advise patients that:
- TRUVADA is not a cure for HIV-1 infection and patients may continue to experience illnesses associated with HIV-1 infection, including opportunistic infections.
- It is important to take TRUVADA in a regular dosing schedule with combination therapy to avoid missing doses.
- All patients with HIV-1 should be tested for hepatitis B virus (HBV) before initiating and monitored after discontinuing taking TRUVADA.
When TRUVADA is used to reduce the risk of acquiring HIV-1, advise uninfected individuals about the importance of the following:
- Confirming that they are HIV-negative before starting to take TRUVADA to reduce the risk of acquiring HIV-1.
- TRUVADA should only be used as part of a complete prevention strategy including other prevention measures. In clinical trials, TRUVADA only protected some subjects from acquiring HIV-1.
- Using condoms consistently and correctly to lower the chance of sexual contact with any body fluids such as semen, vaginal secretions, or blood.
- Knowing their HIV status and the status of their partner(s).
- Getting tested regularly (at least every 3 months) for HIV-1 and ask their partner(s) to get tested as well.
- HIV-1 resistance substitutions may emerge in individuals with undetected HIV-1 infection who are taking TRUVADA, because TRUVADA alone does not constitute a complete regimen for HIV-1 treatment [See WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]
- Reporting any symptoms of acute HIV-1 infection (flu-like symptoms) to their healthcare provider immediately.
- Getting tested for other sexually transmitted infections such as syphilis and gonorrhea that may facilitate HIV-1 transmission.
- Learning about sexual risk behavior and getting support to help reduce sexual risk behavior.
- Taking TRUVADA on a regular dosing schedule and strictly adhere to the recommended dosing schedule to reduce the risk of acquiring HIV-1. Uninfected individuals who miss doses are at greater risk of acquiring HIV-1 than those who do not miss doses. [See WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
- Women who are pregnant should learn about the risks and benefits of TRUVADA to reduce the risk of acquiring HIV-1 during their pregnancy.
- Encourage use of the Agreement Form for Initiating TRUVADA for PrEP of Sexually Acquired HIV-1 Infection.
Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment Of Fertility
Emtricitabine: In long-term oral carcinogenicity studies of emtricitabine, no drug-related increases in tumor incidence were found in mice at doses up to 750 mg/kg/day (26 times the human systemic exposure at the therapeutic dose of 200 mg/day) or in rats at doses up to 600 mg/kg/day (31 times the human systemic exposure at the therapeutic dose).
Emtricitabine did not affect fertility in male rats at approximately 140-fold or in male and female mice at approximately 60-fold higher exposures (AUC) than in humans given the recommended 200 mg daily dose. Fertility was normal in the offspring of mice exposed daily from before birth (in utero) through sexual maturity at daily exposures (AUC) of approximately 60-fold higher than human exposures at the recommended 200 mg daily dose.
Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate: Long-term oral carcinogenicity studies of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate in mice and rats were carried out at exposures up to approximately 16 times (mice) and 5 times (rats) those observed in humans at the therapeutic dose for HIV-1 infection. At the high dose in female mice, liver adenomas were increased at exposures 16 times that in humans. In rats, the study was negative for carcinogenic findings at exposures up to 5 times that observed in humans at the therapeutic dose.
Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate was mutagenic in the in vitro mouse lymphoma assay and negative in an in vitro bacterial mutagenicity test (Ames test). In an in vivo mouse micronucleus assay, tenofovir disoproxil fumarate was negative when administered to male mice.
There were no effects on fertility, mating performance or early embryonic development when tenofovir disoproxil fumarate was administered to male rats at a dose equivalent to 10 times the human dose based on body surface area comparisons for 28 days prior to mating and to female rats for 15 days prior to mating through day seven of gestation. There was, however, an alteration of the estrous cycle in female rats.
Use In Specific Populations
Pregnancy Category B
Antiretroviral Pregnancy Registry :To monitor fetal outcomes of pregnant women exposed to TRUVADA, an Antiretroviral Pregnancy Registry (APR) has been established. Healthcare providers are encouraged to register patients by calling 1-800258-4263.
TRUVADA has been evaluated in a limited number of women during pregnancy and postpartum. Available human and animal data suggest that TRUVADA does not increase the risk of major birth defects overall compared to the background rate. There are, however, no adequate and well-controlled trials in pregnant women. Because the studies in humans cannot rule out the possibility of harm, TRUVADA should be used during pregnancy only if clearly needed. If an uninfected individual becomes pregnant while taking TRUVADA for a PrEP indication, careful consideration should be given to whether use of TRUVADA should be continued, taking into account the potential increased risk of HIV-1 infection during pregnancy.
As of July 2011, the APR has received prospective reports of 764 and 1219 exposures to emtricitabine-and tenofovir-containing regimens, respectively in the first trimester, 321 and 455 exposures, respectively, in second trimester, and 140 and 257 exposures, respectively, in the third trimester. Birth defects occurred in 18 of 764 (2.4%) live births for emtricitabine-containing regimens and 27 of 1219 (2.2%) live births for tenofovircontaining regimens (first trimester exposure) and 10 of 461 (2.2%) live births for emtricitabine-containing regimens and 15 of 714 (2.1%) live births for tenofovircontaining regimens (second/third trimester exposure). Among pregnant women in the
U.S. reference population, the background rate of birth defects is 2.7%. There was no association between emtricitabine or tenofovir and overall birth defects observed in the APR.
The incidence of fetal variations and malformations was not increased in embryofetal toxicity studies performed with emtricitabine in mice at exposures (AUC) approximately 60-fold higher and in rabbits at approximately 120-fold higher than human exposures at the recommended daily dose.
Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate
Reproduction studies have been performed in rats and rabbits at doses up to 14 and 19 times the human dose based on body surface area comparisons and revealed no evidence of impaired fertility or harm to the fetus due to tenofovir.
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommend that HIV-1 infected mothers not breast-feed their infants to avoid risking postnatal transmission of HIV-1.
Studies in humans have shown that both tenofovir and emtricitabine are excreted in human milk. Because the risks of low level exposure to emtricitabine and tenofovir to infants are unknown, mothers should be instructed not to breast-feed if they are receiving TRUVADA, whether they are taking TRUVADA for treatment or to reduce the risk of acquiring HIV-1.
Samples of breast milk obtained from five HIV-1 infected mothers show that emtricitabine is secreted in human milk. Breastfeeding infants whose mothers are being treated with emtricitabine may be at risk for developing viral resistance to emtricitabine. Other emtricitabine-associated risks in infants breastfed by mothers being treated with emtricitabine are unknown.
Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate
Samples of breast milk obtained from five HIV-1 infected mothers show that tenofovir is secreted in human milk. Tenofovir-associated risks, including the risk of viral resistance to tenofovir, in infants breastfed by mothers being treated with tenofovir disoproxil fumarate are unknown.
TRUVADA should only be administered to HIV-1 infected pediatric patients 12 years of age and older with body weight greater than or equal to 35 kg. Because it is a fixed-dose combination tablet, TRUVADA cannot be adjusted for patients of lower age and weight. Safety and efficacy have not been established in pediatric patients less than 12 years of age or weighing less than 35 kg [See WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS, ADVERSE REACTIONS and CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY].
Clinical trials of EMTRIVA or VIREAD did not include sufficient numbers of subjects aged 65 and over to determine whether they respond differently from younger subjects. In general, dose selection for the elderly patients should be cautious, keeping in mind the greater frequency of decreased hepatic, renal, or cardiac function, and of concomitant disease or other drug therapy.
Patients with Impaired Renal Function
Treatment of HIV-1 Infection
The dosing interval for TRUVADA should be modified in HIV-infected adult patients with estimated creatinine clearance of 30–49 mL/min. TRUVADA should not be used in patients with estimated creatinine clearance below 30 mL/min and in patients with end-stage renal disease requiring dialysis. [See DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION].
TRUVADA for a PrEP indication should not be used in HIV-1 uninfected individuals with estimated creatinine clearance below 60 mL/min. If a decrease in estimated creatinine clearance is observed in uninfected individuals while using TRUVADA for PrEP, evaluate potential causes and re-assess potential risks and benefits of continued use [See DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION].
Last reviewed on RxList: 12/30/2013
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.
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