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Mechanism of Action
Aclidinium bromide is a long-acting antimuscarinic agent, which is often referred to as an anticholinergic. It has similar affinity to the subtypes of muscarinic receptors M1 to M5. In the airways, it exhibits pharmacological effects through inhibition of M3 receptor at the smooth muscle leading to bronchodilation. The competitive and reversible nature of antagonism was shown with human and animal origin receptors and isolated organ preparations. In preclinical in vitro as well as in vivo studies, prevention of acetylcholine-induced bronchonconstriction effects was dose-dependent and lasted longer than 24 hours. The clinical relevance of these findings is unknown. The bronchodilation following inhalation of aclidinium bromide is predominantly a site-specific effect.
In a thorough QT Study, 200 mcg and 800 mcg TUDORZA PRESSAIR was administered to healthy volunteers once daily for 3 days; no effects on prolongation of QT interval were observed using QTcF heart-rate correction methods.
Additionally, the effect of TUDORZA PRESSAIR on cardiac rhythm was assessed in 336 COPD patients, 164 patients received aclidinium bromide 400 mcg twice daily and 172 patients received placebo, using 24-hr Holter monitoring. No clinically significant effects on cardiac rhythm were observed.
The absolute bioavailability of aclidinium bromide is approximately 6% in healthy volunteers. Following twice-daily oral inhalation administration of 400 mcg aclidinium bromide in healthy subjects, peak steady state plasma levels were observed within 10 minutes after inhalation.
Aclidinium bromide shows a volume of distribution of approximately 300 L following intravenous administration of 400 mcg in humans.
Clinical pharmacokinetics studies, including a mass balance study, indicate that the major route of metabolism of aclidinium bromide is hydrolysis, which occurs both chemically and enzymatically by esterases. Aclidinium bromide is rapidly and extensively hydrolyzed to its alcohol and dithienylglycolic acid derivatives, neither of which binds to muscarinic receptors and are devoid of pharmacologic activity.
Therefore, due to the low plasma levels achieved at the clinically relevant doses, aclidinium bromide and its metabolites are not expected to alter the disposition of drugs metabolized by the human CYP450 enzymes.
Total clearance was approximately 170 L/h after an intravenous dose of aclidinium bromide in young healthy volunteers with an inter-individual variability of 36%. Intravenously administered radiolabelled aclidinium bromide was administered to healthy volunteers and was extensively metabolized with 1% excreted as unchanged aclidinium. Approximately 54% to 65% of the radioactivity was excreted in urine and 20% to 33% of the dose was excreted in feces. The combined results indicated that almost the entire aclidinium bromide dose was eliminated by hydrolysis. After dry powder inhalation, urinary excretion of aclidinium is about 0.09% of the dose and the estimated effective half-life is 5 to 8 hours.
Formal drug interaction studies were not performed. In vitro studies using human liver microsomes indicated that aclidinium bromide and its major metabolites do not inhibit CYP450, 1A2, 2A6, 2B6, 2C8, 2C9, 2C19, 2D6, 2E1, 3A4/5 or 4A9/11 at concentrations up to 1,000-fold higher than the maximum plasma concentration that would be expected to be achieved at the therapeutic dose. Therefore, it is unlikely that aclidinium bromide causes CYP450 related drug interactions [see DRUG INTERACTIONS].
The pharmacokinetic profile of aclidinium bromide and its main metabolites was assessed in 12 elderly COPD patients (aged 70 years or older) compared to a younger cohort of 12 COPD patients (40-59 years) that were administered 400 mcg aclidinium bromide once daily for 3 days via inhalation. No clinically significant differences in systemic exposure (AUC and Cmax) were observed when the two groups were compared. No dosage adjustment is necessary in elderly patients [Use in Specific Populations].
The impact of renal disease upon the pharmacokinetics of aclidinium bromide was studied in 18 subjects with mild, moderate, or severe renal impairment. Systemic exposure (AUC and Cmax) to aclidinium bromide and its main metabolites following single doses of 400 mcg aclidinium bromide was similar in renally impaired patients compared with 6 matched healthy control subjects. No dose adjustment is necessary in renally impaired patients [see Use in Specific Populations].
The effects of hepatic impairment on the pharmacokinetics of aclidinium bromide were not studied. However, hepatic insufficiency is not expected to have relevant influence on aclidinium bromide pharmacokinetics, since it is predominantly metabolized by chemical and enzymatic hydrolysis to products that do not bind to muscarinic receptors [see Use In Specific Populations].
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)
The TUDORZA PRESSAIR clinical development program included a dose-ranging trial (Trial A) for nominal dose selection and three confirmatory trials (Trials B, C, and D).
Trial A was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, active-controlled, cross-over trial with 7-day treatment periods separated by 5-day washout periods. Trial A enrolled 79 patients who had a clinical diagnosis of COPD, were 40 years of age or older, had a history of smoking at least 10 pack-years, had a forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) of at least 30% and less than 80% of predicted normal value, and a ratio of FEV1 over forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC) of less than 0.7. Trial A included TUDORZA PRESSAIR doses of 400 mcg, 200 mcg and 100 mcg twice daily, formoterol active control, and placebo. Trial A demonstrated that the effect on trough FEV1 and serial FEV1 in patients treated with the TUDORZA PRESSAIR 100 mcg twice daily and 200 mcg twice daily doses was lower compared to patients treated with the TUDORZA PRESSAIR 400 mcg twice daily dose (Figure 1).
Figure 1. Change from baseline in FEV1 Over Time
(prior to and after administration of study drug) at Week 1 in Trial A
Trials B, C, and D were three randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials in patients with COPD. Trials B and C were 3 months in duration, and Trial D was 6 months in duration. These trials enrolled 1,276 patients who had a clinical diagnosis of COPD, were 40 years of age or older, had a history of smoking at least 10 pack-years, had an FEV1 of at least 30% and less than 80% of predicted normal value, and a ratio of FEV1/FVC of less than 0.7; 59% were male, and 93% were Caucasian.
These clinical trials evaluated TUDORZA PRESSAIR 400 mcg twice daily (636 patients) and placebo (640 patients). TUDORZA PRESSAIR 400 mcg resulted in statistically significantly greater bronchodilation as measured by change from baseline in morning pre-dose FEV1 at 12 weeks (the primary efficacy endpoint) compared to placebo in all three trials (Table 2).
Table 2: Change from Baseline in Trough FEV1 (L)
at Week 12
|Treatment Arm||Baseline||Change from Baseline LS Mean (SE)|| Treatment Difference
LS Mean (95% CI)
|Trial B (N=375)|
|Aclidinium 400 mcg||1.33||0.10(0.01)||0.12(0.08,0.16)|
|Trial C (N=359)|
|Aclidinium 400 mcg||1.25||0.06(0.02)||0.07(0.03,0.12)|
|Trial D* (N=542)|
|Aclidinium 400 mcg||1.51||0.06(0.02)||0.11 (0.07,0.14)|
| SE=standard error, and LS mean=least square mean. LS mean,
and 95% confidence interval were obtained from an ANCOVA model with change
from baseline in trough FEV1 as response, with treatment group
and sex as factors and baseline trough FEV1 and age as covariates.
*In the 6-month Trial D, placebo adjusted change from baseline in Trough FEV1 at 24 weeks was 0.13 (0.09, 0.17).
Serial spirometric evaluations were performed throughout daytime hours in a subset of patients in the three trials. The serial FEV1 values over 12 hours for one of the 3-month trials (Trial B) are displayed in Figure 2. Results for the other two placebo-controlled trials were similar to the results for Trial B. Improvement of lung function was maintained for 12 hours after a single dose and was consistent over the 3- or 6-month treatment period.
Figure 2. Mean FEV1 Over Time (prior to and after
administration of study drug) on Day 1 and Week 12 in Subset of Patients Participating
in the 12 hours Serial Spirometry Substudy for Trial B (a 3-month Placebo-Controlled
Mean peak improvements in FEV1, forTUDORZA PRESSAIR relative to baseline were assesed in all patients in trials B, C and D after the first dose on day 1 and were similar at week 12. In Trials B and D but not in Trial C, patients treated with TUDORZA PRESSAIR used less daily rescue albuterol during the trial compared to patients treated with placebo.
Last reviewed on RxList: 8/6/2012
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.
Additional Tudorza Pressair Information
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