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Not for Acute Use
TUDORZA PRESSAIR is intended as a twice-daily maintenance treatment for COPD and is not indicated for the initial treatment of acute episodes of bronchospasm (i.e., rescue therapy).
Inhaled medicines, including TUDORZA PRESSAIR, may cause paradoxical bronchospasm. If this occurs, treatment with TUDORZA PRESSAIR should be stopped and other treatments considered.
Worsening of Narrow-Angle Glaucoma
TUDORZA PRESSAIR should be used with caution in patients with narrow-angle glaucoma. Prescribers and patients should be alert for signs and symptoms of acute narrow-angle glaucoma (e.g., eye pain or discomfort, blurred vision, visual halos or colored images in association with red eyes from conjunctival congestion and corneal edema). Instruct patients to consult a physician immediately should any of these signs or symptoms develop.
Worsening of Urinary Retention
TUDORZA PRESSAIR should be used with caution in patients with urinary retention. Prescribers and patients should be alert for signs and symptoms of prostatic hyperplasia or bladder-neck obstruction (e.g., difficulty passing urine, painful urination). Instruct patients to consult a physician immediately should any of these signs or symptoms develop.
Immediate Hypersensitivity Reactions
Immediate hypersensitivity reactions may occur after administration of TUDORZA PRESSAIR. If such a reaction occurs, therapy with TUDORZA PRESSAIR should be stopped at once and alternative treatments should be considered. Given the similar structural formula of atropine to aclidinium, patients with a history of hypersensitivity reactions to atropine should be closely monitored for similar hypersensitivity reactions to TUDORZA PRESSAIR. In addition, TUDORZA PRESSAIR should be used with caution in patients with severe hypersensitivity to milk proteins.
Patient Counseling Information
See FDA-approved Patient Labeling (Patient Information and Instructions for Use)
Instructions for Administering TUDORZA PRESSAIR
It is important for patients to understand how to correctly use TUDORZA PRESSAIR.
Inform patients that if they miss a dose, they should take their next dose at the usual time; they should not take 2 doses at one time.
Instruct patients that TUDORZA PRESSAIR is a twice daily maintenance bronchodilator and should not be used for immediate relief of breathing problems (i.e., as a rescue medication) [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
Inform patients that TUDORZA PRESSAIR can cause paradoxical bronchospasm. Advise patients that if paradoxical bronchospasm occurs, patients should discontinue TUDORZA PRESSAIR [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
Eye pain or discomfort, blurred vision, visual halos or colored images in association with red eyes from conjunctival congestion and corneal edema may be signs of acute narrow-angle glaucoma. Inform patients to consult a physician immediately should any of these signs and symptoms develop. Advise patients that miotic eye drops alone are not considered to be effective treatment [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
Inform patients that care must be taken not to allow the powder to enter into the eyes as this may cause blurring of vision and pupil dilation.
Difficulty passing urine and dysuria may be symptoms of new or worsening prostatic hyperplasia or bladder outlet obstruction. Patients should be instructed to consult a physician immediately should any of these signs or symptoms develop [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility
Two-year inhalation studies were conducted in mice and rats to asses the carcinogenic potential of aclidinium bromide. No evidence of tumorigenicity was observed in rats and mice at aclidinium doses up to 0.20 and 2.4 mg/kg/day, respectively [approximately 10 and 80 times the Recommended Human Daily Dose (RHDD), respectively, based on summed AUCs of aclidinium bromide and its metabolites].
Aclidinium bromide was positive in the in vitro bacterial gene mutation assay and the in vitro thymidine locus mouse lymphoma assay. However, aclidinium bromide was negative in the in vivo mouse micronucleus assay and the in vivo/in vitro unscheduled DNA synthesis assay with rat liver.
Aclidinium bromide impaired several fertility and reproductive performance indices (increased number of days to mate, decreased conception rate, decreased number of corpora lutea, increased pre-implantation loss with consequent decreased number of implantations and live embryos) in both male and female rats administered inhaled doses greater than or equal to 0.8 mg/kg/day [approximately 15 times the RHDD based on summed AUCs of aclidinium bromide and its metabolites]. These adverse fertility effects were observed in the presence of paternal toxicity as evidenced by mortality and decreased body weight gain. However, there were no effects on mating index and sperm number and morphology. In the separate fertility assessments (treated males mated with untreated females; treated females mated with untreated males), no effect was observed in male and female rats at inhaled dose of 1.9 and 0.8 mg/kg/day, respectively [approximately 30 and 15 times the RHDD, respectively, based on summed AUCs of aclidinium bromide and its metabolites].
Use In Specific Populations
Pregnancy Category C: There are no adequate and well controlled studies in pregnant women. Adverse development effects were observed in rats and rabbits exposed to aclidinium bromide. TUDORZA PRESSAIR should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus.
Effects of aclidinium bromide on embryo-fetal development were examined in rats and rabbits. No evidence of structural alterations was observed in rats exposed during the period of organogenesis at approximately 15 times the recommended human daily dose (RHDD) [based on summed AUCs of aclidinium bromide and its metabolites at inhaled doses less than or equal to 5.0 mg/kg/day]. However, decreased pup weights were observed from dams exposed during the lactation period at approximately 5 times the RHDD [based on summed AUCs of aclidinium bromide and its metabolites at inhaled doses greater than or equal to 0.2 mg/kg/day]. Maternal toxicity was also observed at inhaled doses greater than or equal to 0.2 mg/kg/day.
No evidence of structural alterations was observed in Himalayan rabbits exposed during the period of organogenesis at approximately 20 times the RHDD [based on summed AUCs of aclidinium bromide and its metabolites at inhaled doses less than or equal to 3.6 mg/kg/day]. However, increased incidences of additional liver lobes (3-5%), as compared to 0% in the control group, were observed at approximately 1,400 times the RHDD [based on summed AUCs of aclidinium bromide and its metabolites at oral doses greater than or equal to 150 mg/kg/day], and decreased fetal body weights were observed at approximately 2,300 times the RHDD [based on summed AUCs of aclidinium bromide and its metabolites at oral doses greater than or equal to 300 mg/kg/day]. These fetal findings were observed in the presence of maternal toxicity.
Labor and Delivery
The effect of TUDORZA PRESSAIR on labor and delivery is unknown. TUDORZA PRESSAIR should be used during labor and delivery only if the potential benefit to the patient justifies the potential risk to the fetus.
Aclidinium bromide is excreted into the milk of lactating female rats, and decreased pup weights were observed. Excretion of aclidinium into human milk is probable. There are no human studies that have investigated the effects of TUDORZA PRESSAIR on breast-fed infants. Caution should be exercised when TUDORZA PRESSAIR is administered to nursing women.
TUDORZA PRESSAIR is approved for use in the maintenance treatment of bronchospasm associated with COPD. COPD does not normally occur in children. The safety and effectiveness of TUDORZA PRESSAIR in pediatric patients have not been established.
Of the 636 COPD patients exposed to TUDORZA PRESSAIR 400 mcg twice daily for up to 24 weeks in three placebo-controlled clinical trials, 197 were less than 60 years, 272 were greater than or equal to 60 to less than 70 years, and 167 were greater than or equal to 70 years of age. No overall differences in safety or effectiveness were observed between these subjects and younger subjects. Other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between the elderly and younger patients, but greater sensitivity of some older individuals cannot be ruled out. Based on available data for TUDORZA PRESSAIR, no adjustment of dosage in geriatric patients is warranted [see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY].
The pharmacokinetics of TUDORZA PRESSAIR were investigated in subjects with normal renal function and in subjects with mild, moderate and severe renal impairment [see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY]. No clinically significant differences in aclidinium pharmacokinetics were noted between these populations. Based on available data for TUDORZA PRESSAIR, no adjustment of dosage in renally impaired subjects is warranted.
The effects of hepatic impairment on the pharmacokinetics of TUDORZA PRESSAIR were not studied [see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY].
Last reviewed on RxList: 8/6/2012
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.
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