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Data From Clinical Trials
Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reactions rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice. The adverse reaction information from clinical trials does, however, provide a basis for identifying the adverse events that appear to be related to drug use and for approximating rates.
Safety of Typhim (typhoid vi polysaccharide vaccine) Vi vaccine, the US licensed liquid formulation, has been assessed in clinical trials in more than 4,000 subjects both in countries of high and low endemicity. In addition, the safety of the lyophilized formulation has been assessed in more than 6,000 individuals. The adverse reactions were predominately minor and transient local reactions. Local reactions such as injection site pain, erythema and induration almost always resolved within 48 hours of vaccination. Elevated oral temperature, above 38°C (100.4°F), were reported in these clinical trials.10,11
Adverse reactions from two trials evaluating Typhim (typhoid vi polysaccharide vaccine) Vi vaccine lots in the US (18- to 40-year-old adults) are summarized in TABLE 3. No severe or unusual side effects were observed. Most subjects reported pain and/or tenderness (pain upon direct pressure). Local adverse experiences were generally limited to the first 48 hours.10,11
TABLE 310,11: PERCENTAGE OF 18- TO 40-YEAR-OLD
US ADULTS PRESENTING WITH LOCAL OR SYSTEMIC REACTIONS WITHIN 48 HOURS AFTER
THE FIRST IMMUNIZATION WITH TYPHIM (typhoid vi polysaccharide vaccine) Vi VACCINE
N = 54
Typhim (typhoid vi polysaccharide vaccine) Vi vaccine
N = 54
Typhim (typhoid vi polysaccharide vaccine) Vi vaccine
N = 98
(2 Lots combined)
|Tenderness||7 (13.0%)||53 (98.0%)||95 (96.9%)|
|Pain||4 (7.4%)||22 (40.7%)||26 (26.5%)|
|Induration||0||8 (14.8%)||5 (5.1%)|
|Erythema||0||2 (3.7%)||5 (5.1%)|
|Malaise||8 (14.8%)||13 (24.0%)||4 (4.1%)|
|Headache||7 (13.0%)||11 (20.4%)||16 (16.3%)|
|Myalgia||0||4 (7.4%)||3 (3.1%)|
|Nausea||2 (3.7%)||1 (1.9%)||8 (8.2%)|
|Diarrhea||2 (3.7%)||0||3 (3.1%)|
|Feverish (subjective)||0||6 (11.1%)||3 (3.1%)|
|Fever ≥ 100°F||0||1 (1.9%)||0|
No studies were conducted in US children. Adverse reactions from a trial in Indonesia in children one to twelve years of age are summarized in TABLE 4.10,11 No severe or unusual side effects were observed.
TABLE 410,11: PERCENTAGE OF INDONESIAN CHILDREN
ONE TO TWELVE YEARS OF AGE PRESENTING WITH LOCAL OR SYSTEMIC REACTIONS WITHIN
48 HOURS AFTER THE FIRST IMMUNIZATION WITH TYPHIM (typhoid vi polysaccharide vaccine) Vi VACCINE
|REACTIONS||N = 175|
|Impaired Limb Use||0|
|Decreased Activity||3 (1.7%)|
|* Subjective feeling of fever.|
In the US Reimmunization Study, subjects who had received Typhim (typhoid vi polysaccharide vaccine) Vi vaccine 27 or 34 months earlier, and subjects who had never previously received a typhoid vaccination, were randomized to placebo or Typhim (typhoid vi polysaccharide vaccine) Vi vaccine, in a double-blind study. Safety data from the US Reimmunization Study are presented in TABLE 5.10,11,13 In this study 5/30 (17%) primary immunization subjects and 10/45 (22%) reimmunization subjects had a local reaction. No severe or unusual side effects were observed. Most subjects reported pain and/or tenderness (pain upon direct pressure). Local adverse experiences were generally limited to the first 48 hours.10,11,13
TABLE 510,11,13: US REIMMUNIZATION STUDY, SUBJECTS
PRESENTING WITH LOCAL AND SYSTEMIC REACTIONS WITHIN 48 HOURS AFTER IMMUNIZATION
WITH TYPHIM (typhoid vi polysaccharide vaccine) Vi VACCINE DATA FROM WORLDWIDE POST-MARKETING EXPERIENCE
(N = 32)
(N = 30)
(N = 45*)
|Tenderness||2 (6%)||28 (93%)||44 (98%)|
|Pain||1 (3%)||13 (43%)||25 (56%)|
|Induration||0||5 (17%)||8 (18%)|
|Erythema||0||1 (3%)||5 (11%)|
|Malaise||1 (3%)||11 (37%)||11 (24%)|
|Headache||5 (16%)||8 (27%)||5 (11%)|
|Myalgia||0||2 (7%)||1 (2%)|
|Nausea||0||1 (3%)||1 (2%)|
|Feverish (subjective)||0||3 (10%)||2 (4%)|
|Fever||1 (3%)||0||1 (2%)|
|* At 27 or 34 months following a previous dose given in different studies.|
The following adverse events have been reported during post-approval use of Typhim (typhoid vi polysaccharide vaccine) Vi vaccine. These events have been very rarely reported, however, because they were reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably calculate their frequencies or to establish a causal relationship to Typhim (typhoid vi polysaccharide vaccine) Vi vaccine exposure.
Data are organized by MedDRA system organ class and within system organ class, by order of descreasing frequency.
- Gastro intestinal disorders
Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea.
- General disorders and administration site condition
-Immune system disorders
- Musculoskeletal and connective tissue disorders
- Nervous system disorders
Headache, loss of consciousness, tremor.
Additional Adverse Events: Post-marketing reports of glomerulonephritis, neutropenia, bilateral retinitis, and polyarthritis have been reported in patients who had also received other vaccines; however a causal relationship has not been established.
Reporting of Adverse Events
Reporting by parents and patients of all adverse events occurring after vaccine administration should be encouraged. Adverse events following immunization with vaccine should be reported by the health-care provider to the US Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS). Reporting forms and information about reporting requirements or completion of the form can be obtained from VAERS through a toll-free number 1-800-822-7967 or visit the VAERS website at http//www.vaers.org.17
Health-care providers also should report these events to the Pharmocovigilance Department, Sanofi Pasteur Inc., Discovery Drive, Swiftwater, PA 18370, or call 1-800-822-2463.
Read the Typhim (typhoid vi polysaccharide vaccine) Side Effects Center for a complete guide to possible side effects
There are no known interactions of Typhim (typhoid vi polysaccharide vaccine) Vi vaccine with drugs or foods.
No studies have been conducted in the US to evaluate interactions or immunological interference between the concurrent use of Typhim (typhoid vi polysaccharide vaccine) Vi vaccine and drugs (including antibiotics and antimalarial drugs), immune globulins or other vaccines (including common travelers vaccines such as tetanus, poliomyelitis, hepatitis A, yellow fever and meningococcus). (See ADVERSE REACTIONS section.)
As with other intramuscular injections, Typhim (typhoid vi polysaccharide vaccine) Vi vaccine should be given with caution to individuals on anticoagulant therapy.
10. Unpublished data available from Sanofi Pasteur Inc., compiled 1991
11. Unpublished data available from Sanofi Pasteur SA
12. Klugman KP, et al. Protective activity of Vi capsular polysaccharide vaccine against typhoid fever. The Lancet, 1165-1169, 1987
13. Keitel WA, et al. Clinical and serological responses following primary and booster immunization with Salmonella typhi Vi capsular polysaccharide vaccines. Vaccines 12: 195-199, 1994
17. CDC. Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System - United
Read the Typhim Drug Interactions Center for a complete guide to possible interactions
Last reviewed on RxList: 9/30/2008
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.
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