"The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) today approved the first nucleic acid-based test of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) that can simultaneously detect 14 pathogens responsible for central nervous system (CNS) infections.
Life-threatening or fatal, anaphylactoid reactions, may occur during or after ULTRAVIST administration. Manifestations include respiratory arrest, laryngospasm, bronchospasm, angioedema, and shock. Increased risk is associated with a history of previous reaction to a contrast agent (3-fold), a known sensitivity to iodine and known allergic disorders (that is, bronchial asthma, hay fever and food allergies) or other hypersensitivities (2-fold). Exercise extreme caution when considering the use of iodinated contrast agents in patients with these histories or disorders.
Emergency facilities and personnel trained in the treatment of anaphylactoid reactions should be available for at least 30 to 60 minutes after ULTRAVIST administration.
Contrast Induced Acute Kidney Injury
Acute kidney injury, including renal failure,may occur after intravascular administration of ULTRAVIST. Risk factors include: pre-existing renal insufficiency, dehydration, diabetes mellitus, congestive heart failure, advanced vascular disease, elderly age, concomitant use of nephrotoxic or diuretic medications, multiple myeloma / paraproteinemia, repetitive and/or large doses of ULTRAVIST.
Use the lowest necessary dose of ULTRAVIST in patients with renal impairment. Adequately hydrate patients prior to and following ULTRAVIST administration.
ULTRAVIST increases the circulatory osmotic load and may induce acute or delayed hemodynamic disturbances in patients with congestive heart failure, severely impaired renal function, combined renal and hepatic disease, combined renal and cardiac disease, particularly when repetitive and/or large doses are administered [see DRUG INTERACTIONS].
Among patients who have had cardiovascular reactions, most deaths occurred from the start of injection to 10 minutes later; the main feature was cardiac arrest with cardiovascular disease as the main underlying factor. Isolated reports of hypotensive collapse and shock have been published.
The administration of ULTRAVIST may cause pulmonary edema in patients with heart failure. Based upon published reports, deaths from the administration of iodinated contrast agents range from 6.6 per 1 million (0.00066 percent) to 1 in 10,000 patients (0.01 percent). Observe patients with preexisting cardiovascular disease for several hours following ULTRAVIST administration.
- Angiography may be associated with local and distal organ damage, ischemia, thromboembolism and organ failure including stroke, brachial plexus palsy, chest pain, myocardial infarction, sinus arrest, hepato-renal function abnormalities. For these reasons, meticulous angiographic techniques are recommended, including close attention to guide wire and catheter manipulation, use of manifold systems and/or three-way stopcocks, frequent catheter flushing with heparinized saline solutions and minimizing the length of the procedure. In angiographic procedures, consider the possibility of dislodging plaques or damaging or perforating the vessel wall with resultant pseudoaneurysms, hemorrhage at puncture site, dissection of coronary artery during catheter manipulations and contrast agent injection. The physicochemical properties of the contrast agent, the dose and the speed of injection can influence the reactions. Test injections to ensure proper catheter placement are suggested. Increased thrombosis and activation of the complement system has also occurred. Specialized personnel, and adequate equipment and facilities for immediate resuscitation and cardioversion are necessary. Monitor electrocardiograms and vital signs throughout the procedure.
- Exercise care when performing venography in patients with suspected thrombosis, phlebitis, severe ischemic disease, local infection, venous thrombosis or a totally obstructed venous system.
- Clotting may occur when blood remains in contact with syringes containing iodinated contrast agents.
- Avoid angiography whenever possible in patients with homocystinuria because of the risk of inducing thrombosis and embolism [see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY].
Reactions in Patients with Hyperthyroidism, Pheochromocytoma, or Sickle Cell Disease
Thyroid storm in patients with hyperthyroidism
Thyroid storm has occurred after the intravascular use of iodinated contrast agents in patients with hyperthyroidism, or with an autonomously functioning thyroid nodule. Evaluate the risk in such patients before use of any iodinated contrast agent.
Hypertensive crises in patients with pheochromocytoma
Administer iodinated contrast agents with extreme caution in patients with known or suspected pheochromocytoma. Inject the minimum amount of contrast necessary. Assess the blood pressure throughout the procedure, and have measures for treatment of a hypertensive crisis readily available.
Sickle cell disease
Contrast agents may promote sickling in individuals who are homozygous for sickle cell disease when administered intravascularly.
Increased Radiation Exposure
The decision to use contrast enhancement is associated with risk and increased radiation exposure. Use contrast after a careful evaluation of clinical, other radiologic data, and the results of non-contrast CT findings, taking into account the increased radiation dose and other risks.
Interference with Image Interpretation
As with other iodinated contrast agents, the use of ULTRAVIST Injection may obscure some lesions which were seen on non-contrast CT scans. Calcified lesions are less likely to enhance. The enhancement of tumors after therapy may decrease. The opacification of the inferior vermis following contrast agent administration has resulted in false-positive diagnosis. Cerebral infarctions of recent onset may be better visualized with contrast enhancement. However, older infarctions may be obscured by the contrast agent.
In patients with normal blood-brain barriers and renal failure, iodinated contrast agents have been associated with bloodbrain barrier disruption and accumulation of contrast in the brain. Accumulation of contrast in the brain also occurs in patients where the blood-brain barrier is known or suspected to be disrupted.
Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility
Long-term animal studies have not been performed with iopromide to evaluate carcinogenic potential or effects on fertility. Iopromide was not genotoxic in a series of studies including the Ames test, an in vitro human lymphocytes analysis of chromosomal aberrations, an in vivo mouse micro-nucleus assay, and in an in vivo mouse dominant lethal assay.
Use In Specific Populations
Pregnancy Category B
Reproduction studies performed with iopromide in rats and rabbits at doses up to 3.7 g I/kg (2.2 times the maximum recommended dose for a 50 kg human, or approximately 0.7 times the human dose following normalization of the data to body surface area estimates) have revealed no evidence of direct harm to the fetus. Embryolethality was observed in rabbits that received 3.7 g I/kg, but this was considered to have been secondary to maternal toxicity. Adequate and wellcontrolled studies in pregnant women have not been conducted. Because animal reproduction studies are not always predictive of human response, this drug should be used during pregnancy only if clearly needed.
It is not known whether ULTRAVIST Injection is excreted in human milk. However, many injectable contrast agents are excreted unchanged in human milk. Although it has not been established that serious adverse reactions occur in nursing infants, caution should be exercised when intravascular contrast agents are administered to nursing women because of potential adverse reaction, and consideration should be given to temporarily discontinuing nursing.
The safety and efficacy of ULTRAVIST Injection have been established in the pediatric population over 2 years of age. Use of ULTRAVIST Injection in these age groups is supported by evidence from adequate and well controlled studies of ULTRAVIST Injection in adults and additional safety data obtained in literature and other reports in a total of 274 pediatric patients. Of these, there were 131 children (2–12 years), 57 adolescents, and 86 children of unreported or other ages. There were 148 females, 94 males and 32 in whom gender was not reported. The racial distribution was: Caucasian 93 (33.9%), Black 1 (0.4%), Asian 6 (2.2%), and unknown 174 (63.5%). These patients were evaluated in intra-arterial coronary angiographic (n=60), intravenous contrast computerized tomography (CT) (n=87), excretory urography (n=99) and 28 other procedures.
In these pediatric patients, a concentration of 300 mg I/mL was employed for intravenous contrast CT or excretory urography. A concentration of 370 mg I/mL was employed for intra-arterial and intracardiac administration in the radiographic evaluation of the heart cavities and major arteries. Most pediatric patients received initial volumes of 1–2 mL/kg.
Optimal doses of ULTRAVIST Injection have not been established because different injection volumes, concentrations and injection rates were not studied. The relationship of the volume of injection with respect to the size of the target vascular bed has not been established. The potential need for dose adjustment on the basis of immature renal function has not been established. In the pediatric population, the pharmacokinetic parameters have not been established.
Pediatric patients at higher risk of experiencing an adverse reaction during and after administration of any contrast agent include those with asthma, a sensitivity to medication and/or allergens, cyanotic and acyanotic heart disease, congestive heart failure, or a serum creatinine greater than 1.5 mg/dL. The injection rates in small vascular beds, and the relationship of the dose by volume or concentration in small pediatric patients have not been established. Exercise caution in selecting the dose.
Safety and effectiveness in pediatric patients below the age of two have not been established.
Middle-aged and elderly patients, without significantly impaired renal function, who received ULTRAVIST Injection in doses corresponding to 9–30 g iodine, had mean steady-state volumes of distribution that ranged between 30–40 L. Mean total and renal clearances were between 81–125 mL/min and 70–115 mL/min respectively in these patients, and were similar to the values found in the young volunteers. The distribution phase half-life in this patient population was 0.1 hour, the main elimination phase half-life was 2.3 hours, and the terminal elimination phase half-life was 40 hours. The urinary excretion (97% of the dose) and fecal excretion (2%) was comparable to that observed in young healthy volunteers, suggesting that, compared to the renal route, biliary and/or gastrointestinal excretion is not significant for iopromide.
In patients with renal impairment, opacification of the calyces and pelves by iopromide may be delayed due to slower renal excretion of iopromide.
A pharmacokinetic study in patients with mild (n=2), moderate (n=6), and severe (n=3) renal impairment was conducted. The total clearance of iopromide was decreased proportionately to the baseline decrease in creatinine clearance. The plasma AUC increased about 2-fold in patients with moderate renal impairment and 6-fold in patients with severe renal impairment compared to subjects with normal renal function. The terminal half-life increased from 2.2 hrs for subjects with normal renal function to 11.6 hrs in patients with severe renal impairment. The peak plasma concentration of iopromide was not influenced by the extent of renal impairment. Exercise caution and use the lowest necessary dose of ULTRAVIST in patients with renal dysfunction [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.
Last reviewed on RxList: 5/24/2012
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