"Nov. 1, 2012 -- Having even mildly elevated blood pressure at midlife prematurely ages the brain, a new study shows.
Researchers say the early changes seen with higher blood pressure may set the stage for problems with thinking, memor"...
Uniretic® has been evaluated for safety in more than 1140 patients with hypertension with more than 120 treated for more than one year. uniretic® has not demonstrated a potential for causing adverse experiences different from those previously associated with other ACE inhibitor/diuretic combinations. The overall incidence of reported adverse events was slightly less in patients treated with uniretic® than patients treated with placebo.
Adverse experiences were usually mild and transient, and there was no relationship between adverse experiences and gender, race, age, or total daily dosage (except for serum potassium decreases at 50 mg hydrochlorothiazide) within the moexipril/ hydrochlorothiazide dosage range of 3.75 mg / 3.125 mg to 30 mg / 50 mg. Discontinuation of therapy due to adverse experiences was required in 5.3% of patients treated with uniretic® and in 8.4% of patients treated with placebo. The most common reasons for discontinuation of therapy with uniretic® were cough (0.5%) and dizziness (0.5%).
All adverse experiences considered at least possibly related to treatment that occurred at any dose in placebo-controlled trials of once-daily dosing in more than 1% of patients treated with uniretic® and that were at least as frequent in the uniretic® group as in the placebo group are shown in the following table.
Adverse Events in Placebo-Controlled Trials
|Cough||15 (3)||2 (1)|
|Dizziness||7 (1.4)||2 (1)|
|Fatigue||5 (1)||1 (0.5)|
Other adverse experiences occurring in more than 1% of patients treated with uniretic® in controlled or uncontrolled trials, some of which were of uncertain drug relationship, listed in decreasing frequency include: upper respiratory infection, headache, pain, flu syndrome, pharyngitis, hyperuricemia, diarrhea, back pain, rhinitis, sinusitis, abnormal ECG, infection, abdominal pain, chest pain, dyspepsia, hyperglycemia, hypokalemia, rash, vertigo, nausea, hypertonia, increased SGPT, urinary tract infection, impotence, peripheral edema, pyuria, bronchitis, and fever. See WARNINGS and PRECAUTIONS for discussion of anaphylactoid reactions, angioedema, hypotension, neutropenia/agranulocytosis, fetal/neonatal morbidity and mortality, serum electrolyte imbalances, and cough.
The following adverse experiences, some of which are of uncertain drug relationship, were reported in uniretic® controlled or uncontrolled clinical trials in less than 1% of patients or have been attributed to other ACE inhibitors. Within each organ system, adverse experiences are listed in decreasing frequency.
Cardiovascular: palpitation, flushing, syncope, tachycardia, myocardial infarct, hypotension, postural hypotension, arrhythmia, first degree AV block, ventricular extrasystoles, atrial fibrillation, migraine, hemorrhage, sinus bradycardia, bigeminy, bradycardia, bundle branch block, heart arrest, myocardial ischemia, peripheral vascular disorder, prolonged QT interval, inverted T wave, ventricular fibrillation
Dermatologic: eczema, pruritus, sweating, acne, dry skin, herpes simplex, contact dermatitis, herpes zoster, psoriasis, alopecia, angioedema, erythema nodosum, fungal dermatitis, furunculosis, maculopapular rash, purpuric rash, skin carcinoma, subcutaneous nodule, urticaria, pemphigus
Gastrointestinal: vomiting, constipation, gastroenteritis, periodontal abscess, cholelithiasis, gastritis, gingivitis, esophagitis, flatulence, anorexia, colitis, dysphagia, tooth caries, cheilitis, enteritis, eructation, gastrointestinal carcinoma, gastrointestinal hemorrhage, glossitis, increased appetite, jaundice, melena, rectal hemorrhage, stomatitis, tongue discoloration, tongue edema
Metabolic: hyperlipemia, increased SGOT, gout, bilirubinemia, increased creatinine, hypercholesterolemia, increased BUN, increased CPK, diabetes mellitus, hyponatremia, thirst, edema, increased alkaline phosphatase, increased amylase, dehydration, decreased glucose tolerance, goiter, hypercalcemia, hyperkalemia, hypocalcemia, hypochloremia, hypoproteinemia, weight gain
Neurologic/Psychiatric: insomnia, postural dizziness, somnolence, dry mouth, anxiety, nervousness, paresthesia, depression, neuritis, hypesthesia, decreased libido, neuralgia, amnesia, ataxia, cerebral infarct, emotional lability, facial paralysis, hypokinesia, neurosis, vocal cord paralysis
Other: asthenia, conjunctivitis, myalgia, arthralgia, arthrosis, hernia, neck pain, cyst, tenosynovitis, abnormal vision, allergic reaction, arthritis, cataract, cellulitis, moniliasis, otitis media, eye hemorrhage, chills, abscess, bursitis, deafness, ear pain, glaucoma, iritis, neck rigidity, photosensitivity, retinal degeneration, tinnitus
Monotherapy with moexipril has been evaluated for safety in over 3000 patients. In clinical trials, the observed adverse experiences with moexipril were similar to those seen in the uniretic® trials.
Hydrochlorothiazide: The following adverse reactions have been reported with hydrochlorothiazide and, within each organ system, are listed by decreasing severity.
Cardiovascular: orthostatic hypotension (may be potentiated by alcohol, barbiturates, or narcotics)
Neurologic/Psychiatric: vertigo, dizziness, transient blurred vision, headache, paresthesia, xanthopsia, weakness, restlessness
Musculoskeletal: muscle spasm
Metabolic: hyperglycemia, glycosuria, hyperuricemia
Clinical Laboratory Test Findings
See PRECAUTIONS, General.
Creatinine and Blood Urea Nitrogen
As with other ACE inhibitors, minor increases in blood urea nitrogen or serum creatinine, reversible upon discontinuation of therapy, were observed in less than 1% of patients with essential hypertension who were treated with uniretic®. Increases are more likely to occur in patients with compromised renal function (see PRECAUTIONS, General).
Other (causal relationship unknown)
Clinically important changes in standard laboratory tests were rarely associated with uniretic® administration.
Read the Uniretic (moexipril hcl hydrochlorothiazide tablets) Side Effects Center for a complete guide to possible side effects
Potassium Supplements and Potassium-Sparing Diuretics
As noted above (Serum Electrolyte Imbalances), the net effect of uniretic® may be to elevate a patient's serum potassium, to reduce it, or to leave it unchanged. Potassium-sparing diuretics (spironolactone, amiloride, triamterene) or potassium supplements can increase the risk of hyperkalemia. If concomitant use of such agents is indicated, they should be given with caution, and the patient's serum potassium should be monitored.
Increased serum lithium levels and symptoms of lithium toxicity have been reported in patients receiving ACE inhibitors during therapy with lithium. Because renal clearance of lithium is reduced by thiazides, the risk of lithium toxicity is presumably raised further when, as in therapy with uniretic®, a thiazide diuretic is coadministered with the ACE inhibitor. These drugs should be coadministered with caution, and frequent monitoring of serum lithium levels is recommended.
Nitritoid reactions (symptoms include facial flusing, nausea, vomiting and hypotension) have been reported rarely in patients on therapy with injectable gold (sodium aurothiomalate) and concomitant ACE inhibitor therapy including uniretic®.
Alcohol, Barbiturates, or Narcotics
Potentiation of orthostatic hypotension may occur in patients on thiazide diuretic therapy with concomitant use of alcohol, barbiturates, or narcotics.
Use of thiazide diuretics concomitantly with antidiabetic agents (oral agents and insulin) may require dosage adjustment of the antidiabetic agent. Moexipril has been used in clinical trials concomitantly with oral hypoglycemic agents and there was no evidence of any clinically important adverse interactions.
Cholestyramine and Colestipol Resins
Absorption of hydrochlorothiazide is impaired in the presence of anionic exchange resins. Single doses of either cholestyramine or colestipol resins bind the hydrochlorothiazide and reduce its absorption from the gastrointestinal tract by up to 85% and 43%, respectively.
Use of thiazide diuretics concomitantly with corticosteroids or ACTH may intensify electrolyte depletion, particularly hypokalemia.
Pressor Amines: Thiazide diuretics may decrease arterial responsiveness to pressor amines (e.g. norepinephrine), but not enough to preclude effectiveness of the pressor agent for therapeutic use.
Skeletal Muscle Relaxants, Nondepolarizing
Thiazide diuretics may increase the responsiveness to tubocurarine.
Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents including Selective Cyclooxygenase-2 Inhibitors (COX-2 Inhibitors)
In patients who are elderly, volume-depleted (including those on diuretic therapy), or with compromised renal function, co-administration of NSAIDS, including selective COX-2 inhibitors, with ACE inhibitors, including moexipril, may result in deterioration of renal function, including possible acute renal failure. These effects are usually reversible. Monitor renal function periodically in patients receiving moexipril and NSAID therapy.
The antihypertensive effect of ACE inhibitors and hydrochlorothiazide, as well as the diuretic and natriuretic effects of hydrochlorothiazide, may be attenuated by NSAIDS.
Dual Blockade of the Renin-Angiotensin System (RAS)
Dual blockade of the RAS with angiotensin receptor blockers, ACE inhibitors, or aliskiren is associated with increased risks of hypotension, hyperkalemia, and changes in renal function (including acute renal failure) compared to monotherapy. Closely monitor blood pressure, renal function and electrolytes in patients on uniretic® and other agents that affect the RAS.
Do not co-administer aliskiren with uniretic® in patients with diabetes. Avoid use of aliskiren with uniretic® in patients with renal impairment (GFR < 60 mL/min).
No clinically important pharmacokinetic interactions occurred when moexipril was administered concomitantly with digoxin or cimetidine.
Moexipril has been used in clinical trials concomitantly with calcium-channel-blocking agents, diuretics, H2 blockers, digoxin, and cholesterol-lowering agents. There was no evidence of clinically important adverse interactions. In general, ACE inhibitors have less than additive effects with betaadrenergic blockers, presumably because both work by inhibiting the renin-angiotensin system.
Coadministration of propantheline or guanabenz increased the absorption of hydrochlorothiazide.
Read the Uniretic Drug Interactions Center for a complete guide to possible interactions
Last reviewed on RxList: 9/24/2012
Additional Uniretic Information
Uniretic - User Reviews
Uniretic User Reviews
Now you can gain knowledge and insight about a drug treatment with Patient Discussions.
Report Problems to the Food and Drug Administration
You are encouraged to report negative side effects of prescription drugs to the FDA. Visit the FDA MedWatch website or call 1-800-FDA-1088.
Get tips on handling your hypertension.