Urine Infection (cont.)
Charles Patrick Davis, MD, PhD
Dr. Charles "Pat" Davis, MD, PhD, is a board certified Emergency Medicine doctor who currently practices as a consultant and staff member for hospitals. He has a PhD in Microbiology (UT at Austin), and the MD (Univ. Texas Medical Branch, Galveston). He is a Clinical Professor (retired) in the Division of Emergency Medicine, UT Health Science Center at San Antonio, and has been the Chief of Emergency Medicine at UT Medical Branch and at UTHSCSA with over 250 publications.
Jerry R. Balentine, DO, FACEP
Dr. Balentine received his undergraduate degree from McDaniel College in Westminster, Maryland. He attended medical school at the Philadelphia College of Osteopathic Medicine graduating in1983. He completed his internship at St. Joseph's Hospital in Philadelphia and his Emergency Medicine residency at Lincoln Medical and Mental Health Center in the Bronx, where he served as chief resident.
In this Article
- Urinary tract infection (UTI) facts
- What is a urinary tract infection (UTI)?
- What causes a urinary tract infection (UTI)?
- What are urinary tract infection (UTI) risk factors?
- Common urinary tract infection (UTI) symptoms in women, men, and children
- What are urinary tract infection (UTI) symptoms and signs in women, men, and children?
- Is there a link between urinary tract infection (UTI) and pregnancy?
- How is a urinary tract infection (UTI) diagnosed?
- What is the treatment for a urinary tract infection (UTI)?
- What are common antibiotics used to treat a urinary tract infection (UTI)?
- Are there any home remedies for a urinary tract infection (UTI)?
- What are possible complications of a urinary tract infection (UTI)?
- What is the prognosis for a urinary tract infection (UTI)?
- Is it possible to prevent recurrent urinary tract infections (UTIs) with a vaccine?
- Can a urinary tract infection (UTI) be prevented?
- Is it possible to prevent urinary tract infections (UTIs) with diet and supplements?
What are common antibiotics used to treat a urinary tract infection (UTI)?
The following antibiotics are used to treat UTIs:
- Beta-lactams, including penicillins and cephalosporins (for example, Amoxicillin, Augmentin, Keflex, Duricef, Ceftin, Lorabid, Rocephin, Cephalexin, Suprax, and others); many organisms have resistance to some of these drugs.
- Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole combination antibiotic (for example, Bactrim DS and Septra); many organisms may show resistance.
- Fluoroquinolones (for example, Cipro, Levaquin, and Floxin) resistance is developing; also these should not be used in pregnancy or in the pediatric population.
- Tetracyclines (for example, tetracycline, doxycycline, or minocycline) used most often for Mycoplasma or Chlamydia infections; like fluoroquinolones, they should not be used in pregnancy or by the pediatric population.
- Aminoglycosides (for example, gentamycin, amikacin, and tobramycin) used usually in combination with other antibiotics to combat severe UTIs.
- Macrolides (for example, clarithromycin, azithromycin, and erythromycin), used more often with some STD-caused urinary problems.
- Fosfomycin (Monurol), a synthetic phosphonic acid derivative, is used for acute cystitis but not in more complicated UTIs.
There are other antibiotics that are used occasionally, such as Nitrofurantoin, but its use is limited to cystitis and should not be used to treat more serious (kidney) UTIs. Choice of antibiotics for treatment depends mainly on the susceptibility of the infecting agent to the drug, the seriousness of the infection, if the infected person is an adult, child or is pregnant, and on the treating doctor's experience and knowledge of local antibiotic resistance patterns of commonly infecting bacteria, especially if the individual has an STD because of possible antibiotic resistance of STD-causing organisms.
The medication types and, dose, and frequency, and length of treatment times depends on the age, weight, patient condition with complicating factors like pregnancy, and antibiotic resistance that may be present. Medical treatments should be prescribed by the patient's physician who can give the individual personalized treatment for their infection. This is especially important in children age 2 months to 2 years as the American Academy of Pediatrics suggests additional tests (for example, ultrasound) if after 2 days there is a poor clinical response to treatment.
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