Vaginal Pain and Vulvodynia
Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD
Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD, is a U.S. board-certified Anatomic Pathologist with subspecialty training in the fields of Experimental and Molecular Pathology. Dr. Stöppler's educational background includes a BA with Highest Distinction from the University of Virginia and an MD from the University of North Carolina. She completed residency training in Anatomic Pathology at Georgetown University followed by subspecialty fellowship training in molecular diagnostics and experimental pathology.
Jerry R. Balentine, DO, FACEP
Dr. Balentine received his undergraduate degree from McDaniel College in Westminster, Maryland. He attended medical school at the Philadelphia College of Osteopathic Medicine graduating in1983. He completed his internship at St. Joseph's Hospital in Philadelphia and his Emergency Medicine residency at Lincoln Medical and Mental Health Center in the Bronx, where he served as chief resident.
- Vaginal pain and vulvodynia facts
- What is vaginal pain (vulvodynia)?
- What causes vaginal pain and/or vulvodynia?
- What about vaginal pain during pregnancy?
- What symptoms are characteristic of vaginal pain and vulvodynia?
- What are risk factors for vaginal pain and vulvodynia?
- How is vaginal pain and vulvodynia diagnosed?
- What is the treatment for vaginal pain and vulvodynia?
- Medications and other medical therapies for vaginal pain and vulvodynia
- Home remedies for vaginal pain and vulvodynia
- What are the complications of vaginal pain and vulvodynia?
- What is the outlook (prognosis) for vaginal pain and vulvodynia?
- Find a local Obstetrician-Gynecologist in your town
Vaginal pain and vulvodynia facts
- Vulvodynia refers to pain in the area of the vulva and vaginal opening for which no cause can be identified.
- Vulvodynia is not related to sexually-transmitted diseases (STDs).
- The exact cause of vulvodynia is not known.
- Symptoms include a burning, throbbing, or aching pain that can be localized to one area of the vulva or more widespread.
- Vaginal itching may be associated with vulvodynia.
- Vulvodynia can be treated with medications and/or self-care (home remedy) measures. No one treatment is effective for all women.
- Local anesthetics, local estrogen creams, antidepressants, and anticonvulsive drugs are examples of medical treatments for vulvodynia.
- Biofeedback, exercises, and nerve blocks may benefit other women.
- Vulvodynia is not associated with cancer or serious medical conditions, but it can be a source of long-term physical and emotional discomfort.
What is vaginal pain (vulvodynia)?
Vulvodynia refers to pain in the area of the vulva and vaginal opening. Vulvodynia is considered to be pain for which there is no known cause. It is different from pain that is located deep in the pelvis or internally in the vagina. This article focuses on pain in the vulvar region and at the opening (introitus) of the vagina. Deeper vaginal pain can also occur due to infections, tumors and conditions that cause more generalized pain in the pelvic organs.
Vaginal pain can be chronic and can last for years in some women. The degree of severity varies among women. It often occurs in the absence of physical signs or visible abnormalities. It can be severe and can interfere with sexual activity and cause painful intercourse (dyspareunia). However, there are a number of other causes of vaginal pain during or after sex.
What causes vaginal pain and/or vulvodynia?
It is unclear why some women develop vulvodynia. It is not thought to be related to sexually-transmitted diseases (STDs), although some women with vulvodynia have had multiple STDs. Some theories suggest that vulvodynia may be related to
- damage or irritation of nerves,
- abnormal responses to irritation or inflammation,
- allergic reactions,
- muscle spasms,
- a history of sexual abuse, or
- frequent use of antibiotics.
Familial or genetic factors also have been suggested to play a role in vulvodynia. Unfortunately, the exact cause has not been determined and most women have no known contributing factors.
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