Valley Fever (cont.)
Charles Patrick Davis, MD, PhD
Dr. Charles "Pat" Davis, MD, PhD, is a board certified Emergency Medicine doctor who currently practices as a consultant and staff member for hospitals. He has a PhD in Microbiology (UT at Austin), and the MD (Univ. Texas Medical Branch, Galveston). He is a Clinical Professor (retired) in the Division of Emergency Medicine, UT Health Science Center at San Antonio, and has been the Chief of Emergency Medicine at UT Medical Branch and at UTHSCSA with over 250 publications.
Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD
Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD, is a U.S. board-certified Anatomic Pathologist with subspecialty training in the fields of Experimental and Molecular Pathology. Dr. Stöppler's educational background includes a BA with Highest Distinction from the University of Virginia and an MD from the University of North Carolina. She completed residency training in Anatomic Pathology at Georgetown University followed by subspecialty fellowship training in molecular diagnostics and experimental pathology.
In this Article
- Valley fever (coccidioidomycosis) facts
- What is valley fever (coccidioidomycosis)?
- What causes valley fever (coccidioidomycosis)?
- What are the symptoms and signs of valley fever (coccidioidomycosis)?
- How is valley fever (coccidioidomycosis) diagnosed?
- What is the treatment for valley fever (coccidioidomycosis)?
- What is the prognosis (outcome) for valley fever (coccidioidomycosis)?
- What are the risk factors for developing valley fever (coccidioidomycosis)?
- Can valley fever (coccidioidomycosis) be prevented?
- Is valley fever (coccidioidomycosis) contagious?
- Where can one find more information on valley fever?
What is the treatment for valley fever (coccidioidomycosis)?
The majority of cases (over 60%) spontaneously resolves and requires no treatment. However, there are several antifungal drugs available to treat coccidioidomycosis if needed. The drug of choice is usually amphotericin B, but oral azoles (fluconazole [Diflucan], itraconazole [Sporanox], ketoconazole [Nizoral]) and a triazole (posaconazole) can be used. A new drug called voriconazole may also be used. Caspofungin use has also been reported to treat the infection; it seem to work best in combination with other antifungal drugs. Most of these drugs have side effects, and most have not been proven safe to use in pregnant patients except for amphotericin B. High relapse rates can occur with some patients (about 75% relapse with brain involvement), requiring lifelong antifungal therapy. In general, dosage (especially pediatric), length of time of drug administration, and the choice of drug is best decided in consultation with an infectious disease specialist.
Surgical treatment is sometimes needed. Pulmonary cavities, persistent pulmonary infection, empyema (pus collection), and shunt placement are some of the surgical interventions used to treat this disease.
Other treatments (for example, prednisone [Deltasone, Liquid Pred] or alternative therapy such as dietary modification) are not currently recommended by most physicians; people should consult with their physician before trying to use such methods.
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