"The U.S. Food and Drug Administration today approved Dotarem (gadoterate meglumine) for use in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain, spine and associated tissues of patients ages 2 years and older.
Dotarem is a gadolinium-based"...
Vancomycin is indicated for the treatment of serious or severe infections caused by susceptible strains of methicillin-resistant (beta-lactam-resistant) staphylococci. It is indicated for penicillin-allergic patients, for patients who cannot receive or who have failed to respond to other drugs, including the penicillins or cephalosporins, and for infections caused by vancomycin-susceptible organisms that are resistant to other antimicrobial drugs. Vancomycin is indicated for initial therapy when methicillinresistant staphylococci are suspected, but after susceptibility data are available, therapy should be adjusted accordingly.
Vancomycin is effective in the treatment of staphylococcal endocarditis. Its effectiveness has been documented in other infections due to staphylococci, including septicemia, bone infections, lower respiratory tract infections, skin and skin structure infections. When staphylococcal infections are localized and purulent, antibiotics are used as adjuncts to appropriate surgical measures.
Vancomycin has been reported to be effective alone or in combination with an aminoglycoside for endocarditis caused by Streptococcus viridans or S. bovis. For endocarditis caused by enterococci (e.g., E. faecalis), vancomycin has been reported to be effective only in combination with an aminoglycoside.
Vancomycin has been reported to be effective for the treatment of diphtheroid endocarditis. Vancomycin has been used successfully in combination with either rifampin, an aminoglycoside, or both in early-onset prosthetic valve endocarditis caused by S. epidermidis or diphtheroids.
Specimens for bacteriologic cultures should be obtained in order to isolate and identify causative organisms and to determine their susceptibilities to vancomycin.
To reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain the effectiveness of vancomycin and other antibacterial drugs, vancomycin should be used only to treat or prevent infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by susceptible bacteria. When culture and susceptibility information are available, they should be considered in selecting or modifying antibacterial therapy. In the absence of such data, local epidemiology and susceptibility patterns may contribute to the empiric selection of therapy.
DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION
Vancomycin Injection, USP in the GALAXY plastic container (PL 2040) is intended for intravenous use only.
Vancomycin in the GALAXY Container (PL 2040 Plastic) is not to be administered orally. An infusion rate of 10 mg/min or less is associated with fewer infusion-related events (see ADVERSE REACTIONS). Infusion related events may occur, however, at any rate or concentration.
Patients With Normal Renal Function
The usual daily intravenous dose is 2 g divided either as 500 mg every 6 hours or 1 g every 12 hours. Each dose should be administered at no more than 10 mg/min or over a period of at least 60 minutes, whichever is longer. Other patient factors, such as age or obesity, may call for modification of the usual intravenous daily dose.
The usual intravenous dosage of vancomycin is 10 mg/kg per dose given every 6 hours. Each dose should be administered over a period of at least 60 minutes. Close monitoring of serum concentrations of vancomycin may be warranted in these patients.
In pediatric patients up to the age of 1 month, the total daily intravenous dosage may be lower. In neonates, an initial dose of 15 mg/kg is suggested, followed by 10 mg/kg every 12 hours for neonates in the 1st week of life and every 8 hours thereafter up to the age of 1 month. Each dose should be administered over 60 minutes. In premature infants, vancomycin clearance decreases as postconceptional age decreases. Therefore, longer dosing intervals may be necessary in premature infants. Close monitoring of serum concentrations of vancomycin is recommended in these patients.
Patients With Impaired Renal Function and Elderly Patients
Dosage adjustment must be made in patients with impaired renal function. In the elderly, greater dosage reductions than expected may be necessary because of decreased renal function. Measurement of vancomycin serum concentrations can be helpful in optimizing therapy, especially in seriously ill patients with changing renal function. Vancomycin serum concentrations can be determined by use of microbiologic assay, radioimmunoassay, fluorescence polarization immunoassay, fluorescence immunoassay, or high-pressure liquid chromatography. If creatinine clearance can be measured or estimated accurately, the dosage for most patients with renal impairment can be calculated using the following table. The dosage of vancomycin per day in mg is about 15 times the glomerular filtration rate in mL/min:
DOSAGE TABLE FOR VANCOMYCIN IN PATIENTS WITH IMPAIRED
RENAL FUNCTION (Adapted from Moellering et al)4
|Creatinine Clearance mL/min||Vancomycin Dose
The initial dose should be no less than 15 mg/kg, even in patients with mild to moderate renal insufficiency. The table is not valid for functionally anephric patients. For such patients, an initial dose of 15 mg/kg of body weight should be given to achieve prompt therapeutic serum concentrations. The dose required to maintain stable concentrations is 1.9 mg/kg/24 h. In patients with marked renal impairment, it may be more convenient to give maintenance doses of 250 to 1,000 mg once every several days rather than administering the drug on a daily basis. In anuria, a dose of 1,000 mg every 7 to 10 days has been recommended. When only the serum creatinine concentration is known, the following formula (based on sex, weight, and age of the patient) may be used to calculate creatinine clearance. Calculated creatinine clearances (mL/min) are only estimates. The creatinine clearance should be measured promptly.
|Men:||(weight in kg) x (140 – age)|
|(72) x serum creatinine (mg/100 mL)|
|Women:||(0.85) x (above value)|
The serum creatinine must represent a steady state of renal function. Otherwise, the estimated value for creatinine clearance is not valid. Such a calculated clearance is an overestimate of actual clearance in patients with conditions: (1) characterized by decreasing renal function, such as shock, severe heart failure, or oliguria; (2) in which a normal relationship between muscle mass and total body weight is not present, such as obese patients or those with liver disease, edema, or ascites; and (3) accompanied by debilitation, malnutrition, or inactivity. The safety and efficacy of vancomycin administration by the intrathecal (intralumbar or intraventricular) routes have not been established.
Intermittent infusion is the recommended method of administration.
Directions for use of Vancomycin Injection, USP in GALAXY plastic container (PL 2040)
Vancomycin Injection, USP in GALAXY plastic container (PL 2040) is for intravenous administration only.
Store in a freezer capable of maintaining a temperature at or below -20°C (-4°F).
Thawing of Plastic Containers:
- Thaw frozen containers at room temperature (25°C/77°F) or under refrigeration (5°C/41°F). DO NOT FORCE THAW BY IMMERSION IN WATER BATHS OR BY MICROWAVE IRRADIATION.
- Check for minute leaks by squeezing the bag firmly. If leaks are detected, discard solution because sterility may be impaired.
- DO NOT ADD SUPPLEMENTARY MEDICATION.
- Visually inspect the container for particulate matter and discoloration. Components of the solution may precipitate in the frozen state and should dissolve with little or no agitation after the solution has reached room temperature. Potency is not affected. If after visual inspection, the solution is discolored or remains cloudy, an insoluble precipitate is noted, or any seals or outlet ports are not intact, the container should be discarded.
- The thawed solution in GALAXY plastic container (PL 2040) remains chemically stable for 72 hours at room temperature (25°C/77°F) or for 30 days when stored under refrigeration (5°C/41°F).
- Do not refreeze thawed antibiotics.
Preparation for Intravenous Administration:
- Suspend container from eyelet support.
- Remove protector from outlet port at bottom of container.
- Attach administration set. Refer to complete directions accompanying set.
- Use sterile equipment.
Caution: Do not use plastic containers in series connections. Such use could result in an embolism due to residual air being drawn from the primary container before administration of the fluid from the secondary container is complete.
Storage And Handling
Vancomycin Injection, USP is supplied as a frozen, iso-osmotic, premixed solution in a 100 mL, 150 mL underfilled /200mL, or 200 mL single dose GALAXY plastic container (PL 2040) in the following vancomycin-equivalent dose:
|2G3551||500 mg/100 mL container||NDC 0338-3551-48|
|2G3580||750 mg/150 mL (underfill) in 200 mL container||NDC 0338-3580-48|
|2G3552||1 g/200 mL container||NDC 0338-3552-48|
Store at or below -20°C (-4°F).
See DIRECTIONS FOR USE OF Vancomycin Injection, USP in GALAXY plastic container (PL 2040).
Handle frozen product containers with care. Product containers may be fragile in the frozen state.
4. Moellering RC, Krogstad DJ, Greenblatt DJ: Vancomycin therapy in patients with impaired renal function: A nomogram for dosage. Ann Inter Med 1981;94:343.
Baxter Healthcare Corporation, Deerfield, IL 60015 USA Printed in USA. Revised, October 2011
Last reviewed on RxList: 2/7/2012
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.
Additional Vancomycin Hydrochloride Information
- Vancomycin Hydrochloride Drug Interactions Center: vancomycin iv
- Vancomycin Hydrochloride Side Effects Center
- Vancomycin Hydrochloride Overview including Precautions
- Vancomycin Hydrochloride FDA Approved Prescribing Information including Dosage
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