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Details with Side Effects
VASERETIC has been evaluated for safety in more than 1500 patients, including over 300 patients treated for one year or more. In clinical trials with VASERETIC no adverse experiences peculiar to this combination drug have been observed. Adverse experiences that have occurred, have been limited to those that have been previously reported with enalapril or hydrochlorothiazide.
The most frequent clinical adverse experiences in controlled trials were: dizziness (8.6 percent), headache (5.5 percent), fatigue (3.9 percent) and cough (3.5 percent). Generally, adverse experiences were mild and transient in nature. Adverse experiences occurring in greater than two percent of patients treated with VASERETIC in controlled clinical trials are shown below.
|Percent of Patients in Controlled Studies|
|Muscle Cramps||2.7 (0.2)||0.9|
|Orthostatic Effects||2.3 ( < 0.1)||0.0|
|Diarrhea||2.1 ( < 0.1)||1.7|
Clinical adverse experiences occurring in 0.5 to 2.0 percent of patients in controlled trials included: Body As A Whole: Syncope, chest pain, abdominal pain; Cardiovascular: Orthostatic hypotension, palpitation, tachycardia; Digestive: Vomiting, dyspepsia, constipation, flatulence, dry mouth; Nervous/Psychiatric: Insomnia, nervousness, paresthesia, somnolence, vertigo; Skin: Pruritus, rash; Other: Dyspnea, gout, back pain, arthralgia, diaphoresis, decreased libido, tinnitus, urinary tract infection.
Angioedema: Angioedema has been reported in patients receiving VASERETIC, with an incidence higher in black than in non-black patients. Angioedema associated with laryngeal edema may be fatal. If angioedema of the face, extremities, lips, tongue, glottis and/or larynx occurs, treatment with VASERETIC should be discontinued and appropriate therapy instituted immediately (see WARNINGS).
Hypotension: In clinical trials, adverse effects relating to hypotension occurred as follows: hypotension (0.9 percent), orthostatic hypotension (1.5 percent), other orthostatic effects (2.3 percent). In addition syncope occurred in 1.3 percent of patients (see WARNINGS).
Cough: See PRECAUTIONS, Cough.
Clinical Laboratory Test Findings
Serum Electrolytes: See PRECAUTIONS.
Creatinine, Blood Urea Nitrogen: In controlled clinical trials minor increases in blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine, reversible upon discontinuation of therapy, were observed in about 0.6 percent of patients with essential hypertension treated with VASERETIC. More marked increases have been reported in other enalapril experience. Increases are more likely to occur in patients with renal artery stenosis (see PRECAUTIONS).
Serum Uric Acid, Glucose, Magnesium, and Calcium: See PRECAUTIONS.
Hemoglobin and Hematocrit: Small decreases in hemoglobin and hematocrit (mean decreases of approximately 0.3 g percent and 1.0 vol percent, respectively) occur frequently in hypertensive patients treated with VASERETIC but are rarely of clinical importance unless another cause of anemia coexists. In clinical trials, less than 0.1 percent of patients discontinued therapy due to anemia.
Liver Function Tests: Rarely, elevations of liver enzymes and/or serum bilirubin have occurred (see WARNINGS, Hepatic Failure).
Other adverse reactions that have been reported with the individual components are listed below and, within each category, are in order of decreasing severity.
Enalapril Maleate - Enalapril has been evaluated for safety in more than 10,000 patients. In clinical trials adverse reactions which occurred with enalapril were also seen with VASERETIC. However, since enalapril has been marketed, the following adverse reactions have been reported: Body As A Whole: Anaphylactoid reactions (see WARNINGS, Anaphylactoid reactions during membrane exposure); Cardiovascular: Cardiac arrest; myocardial infarction or cerebrovascular accident, possibly secondary to excessive hypotension in high risk patients (see WARNINGS, Hypotension); pulmonary embolism and infarction; pulmonary edema; rhythm disturbances including atrial tachycardia and bradycardia; atrial fibrillation; hypotension; angina pectoris, Raynaud's phenomenon; Digestive: lleus, pancreatitis, hepatic failure, hepatitis (hepatocellular [proven on rechallenge] or cholestatic jaundice) (see WARNINGS, Hepatic Failure), melena, anorexia, glossitis, stomatitis, dry mouth; Hematologic: Rare cases of neutropenia, thrombocytopenia and bone marrow depression. Hemolytic anemia, including cases of hemolysis in patients with G-6-PD deficiency, has been reported; a causal relationship to enalapril cannot be excluded. Nervous System/Psychiatric: Depression, confusion, ataxia, peripheral neuropathy (e.g., paresthesia, dysesthesia), dream abnormality; Urogenital: Renal failure, oliguria, renal dysfunction, (see PRECAUTIONS and DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION), flank pain, gynecomastia; Respiratory: Pulmonary infiltrates, eosinophilic pneumonitis, bronchospasm, pneumonia, bronchitis, rhinorrhea, sore throat and hoarseness, asthma, upper respiratory infection; Skin: Exfoliative dermatitits, toxic epidermal necrolysis, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, herpes zoster, erythema multiforme, urticaria, pemphigus, alopecia, flushing, photosensitivity; Special Senses: Blurred vision, taste alteration, anosmia, conjunctivitis, dry eyes, tearing.
Miscellaneous: A symptom complex has been reported which may include some or all of the following: a positive ANA, an elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate, arthralgia/arthritis, myalgia/myositis, fever, serositis, vasculitis, leukocytosis, eosinophilia, photosensitivity, rash and other dermatologic manifestations.
Hydrochlorothiazide - Body as a Whole: Weakness; Digestive: Pancreatitis, jaundice (intrahepatic cholestatic jaundice), sialadenitis, cramping, gastric irritation, anorexia; Hematologic: Aplastic anemia, agranulocytosis, leukopenia, hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia; Hypersensitivity: Purpura, photosensitivity, urticaria, necrotizing angiitis (vasculitis and cutaneous vasculitis), fever, respiratory distress including pneumonitis and pulmonary edema, anaphylactic reactions; Musculoskeletal: Muscle spasm; Nervous System/Psychiatric: Restlessness; Renal: Renal failure, renal dysfunction, interstitial nephritis (see WARNINGS); Skin: Erythema multiforme including Stevens-Johnson syndrome, exfoliative dermatitis including toxic epidermal necrolysis, alopecia; Special Senses: Transient blurred vision, xanthopsia.
Read the Vaseretic (enalapril maleate-hydrochlorothiazide tablets) Side Effects Center for a complete guide to possible side effects
Dual Blockade of the Renin-Angiotensin System (RAS)
Dual blockade of the RAS with angiotensin receptor blockers, ACE inhibitors, or aliskiren is associated with increased risks of hypotension, hyperkalemia, and changes in renal function (including acute renal failure) compared to monotherapy. Closely monitor blood pressure, renal function and electrolytes in patients on Vaseretic and other agents that affect the RAS
Do no co-administer aliskiren with Vaseretic in patients with diabetes. Avoid use of aliskiren with Vaseretic in patients with renal impairment (GFR < 60 ml/min).
Hypotension -Patients on Diuretic Therapy: Patients on diuretics and especially those in whom diuretic therapy was recently instituted, may occasionally experience an excessive reduction of blood pressure after initiation of therapy with enalapril. The possibility of hypotensive effects with enalapril can be minimized by either discontinuing the diuretic or increasing the salt intake prior to initiation of treatment with enalapril. If it is necessary to continue the diuretic, provide medical supervision for at least two hours and until blood pressure has stabilized for at least an additional hour (see WARNINGS and DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION).
Agents Causing Renin Release: The antihypertensive effect of enalapril is augmented by antihypertensive agents that cause renin release (e.g., diuretics).
Non-steroidal Anti-inflammatory Agents including Selective Cyclooxygenase-2 Inhibitors (COX-2 Inhibitors)
In patients who are elderly, volume-depleted (including those on diuretic therapy), or with compromised renal function, co-administration of NSAIDs, including selective COX-2 inhibitors, with ACE inhibitors, including enalapril, may result in deterioration of renal function, including possible acute renal failure. These effects are usually reversible. Monitor renal function periodically in patients receiving enalapril and NSAID therapy.
In a clinical pharmacology study, indomethacin or sulindac was administered to hypertensive patients receiving enalapril maleate. In this study there was no evidence of a blunting of the antihypertensive action of enalapril maleate. However, reports suggest that NSAIDs may diminish the antihypertensive effect of ACE inhibitors.
Other Cardiovascular Agents: Enalapril has been used concomitantly with beta adrenergicblocking agents, methyldopa, nitrates, calcium-blocking agents, hydralazine and prazosin without evidence of clinically significant adverse interactions.
Agents Increasing Serium Potassium: Enalapril attenuates diuretic-induced potassium loss. Potassium-sparing diuretics (e.g., spironolactone, triameterene, or amiloride), potassium supplements, or potassium-containing salt substitutes may lead to significant increases in serum potassium. Therefore, if concomitant use of these agents is indicated because of demonstrated hypokalemia they should be used with caution and with frequent monitoring of serum potassium.
Lithium: Lithium toxicity has been reported in patients receiving lithium concomitantly with drugs which cause elimination of sodium, including ACE inhibitors. A few cases of lithium toxicity have been reported in patients receiving concomitant enalapril and lithium and were reversible upon discontinuation of both drugs. It is recommended that serum lithium levels be monitored frequently if enalapril is administered concomitantly with lithium.
Gold: Nitritoid reactions (symptoms include facial flushing, nausea, vomiting and hypotension) have been reported rarely in patients on therapy with injectable gold (sodium aurothiomalate) and concomitant ACE inhibitor therapy including VASERETIC.
When administered concurrently the following drugs may interact with thiazide diuretics:
Alcohol, barbiturates, or narcotics - potentiation of orthostatic hypotension may occur.
Antidiabetic drugs (oral agents and insulin) - dosage adjustment of the antidiabetic drug may be required.
Other antihypertensive drugs - additive effect or potentiation.
Cholestyramine and colestipol resins - Absorption of hydrochlorothiazide is impaired in the presence of anionic exchange resins. Single doses of either cholestyramine or colestipol resins bind the hydrochlorothiazide and reduce its absorption from the gastrointestinal tract by up to 85 and 43 percent, respectively.
Corticosteroids, ACTH - intensified electrolyte depletion, particularly hypokalemia.
Pressor amines (e.g., norepinephrine) - possible decreased response to pressor amines but not sufficient to preclude their use.
Skeletal muscle relaxants, nondepolarizing (e.g., tubocurarine) - possible increased responsiveness to the muscle relaxant.
Lithium - should not generally be given with diuretics. Diuretic agents reduce the renal clearance of lithium and add a high risk of lithium toxicity. Refer to the package insert for lithium preparations before use of such preparations with VASERETIC.
Non-steroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs - In some patients, the administration of a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent can reduce the diuretic, natriuretic, and antihypertensive effects of loop, potassium-sparing and thiazide diuretics. Therefore, when VASERETIC and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents are used concomitantly, the patient should be observed closely to determine if the desired effect of the diuretic is obtained.
Read the Vaseretic Drug Interactions Center for a complete guide to possible interactions
Last reviewed on RxList: 9/24/2012
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.
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